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    Study on characteristic chromatogram and content determination of phenols and flavonoids of Viticis Negundo Fructus and Viticis Fructus
    LI Guo-wei, HE Jia-ying, LIU Xiao-han, QIU Yun-jing, ZHONG Chun-lin, WU Wen-ping, SUO Cai-xian, SUN Dong-mei
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 379-386.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.003
    Abstract782)      PDF(pc) (1121KB)(6)       Save
    In order to study the differences between Viticis Negundo Fructus and Viticis Fructus,the characteristic chromatogram and multi-index content determination method was established.Based on the UPLC characteristic chromatogram of Viticis Negundo Fructus, nine chemical components were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) then determined,which were protocatechuic acid A,protocatechualdehyde,4-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,isoorientin,orientin,agnuside,vitex and isovitex.The determination of 15 batches of Viticis Negundo Fructus and 12 batches of Viticis Fructus showed that there were differences among these nine components.The means of protocatechuic acid,protocatechualdehyde,4-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid and agnuside for Viticis Negundo Fructus were higher than Viticis Fructus that isoorientin and orientin were lower,while vitexin and isovitexin were not detected in Viticis Fructus.The UPLC characteristic chromatogram combined with multi-index content determination was applied to compare the differernces between Viticis Negundo Fructus and Viticis Fructus,which provide a reference for their quality control and clinical medication.
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    Chemical constituents of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack.
    WANG Ru-ru, ZHANG Shan-shan, XU Hong-tao, WANG Yong-li, CHOU Gui-xin
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (5): 787-797.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.5.007
    Abstract733)      PDF(pc) (988KB)(11)       Save
    To study the chemical constituents of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, two new compounds, named as murrayanin (1) and 8-demethylnobiletin (2), along with twenty-four known compounds (3-26) were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of M. paniculata by various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, ODS, Sephadex-LH 20, Pre-HPLC, their structures was elucidated by spectral data analysis. The known compounds were identified as ficusal (3),lariciresinol-4′-monomethy ether (4),(±)-5′-methoxy-4′-O-methyllariciresinol (5),diospyrosin (6),(-)-9′-O-E-feruloyl-lyoniresinol (7),7-O-methylphellodenol-B (8),osthenon (9),3,4′-dihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenylacetone (10),4′-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (11),cystosiphonin (12),4′-hydroxy-5,7,3′-trimethoxyflavanone (13),5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavanone (14),2′,4-dihydroxy-3′,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone (15),2′,3-dihydroxy-4,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone (16),evofolin B (17),2′-hydroxy-3,4,5,4′,6′-pentamoxychalcone (18),2′-hydroxy-3,4,4′,6′-tetramethoxychalone (19),5,8-dihydroxy-6,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (20),3′-hydroxy-5,6,7,8,4′,5′-hexamethoxyflavone (21),5,3′,5′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (22),5,7,3′-trihydroxy-8,4′-dimethoxyflavone(23),8-hydroxy-5,6,7,3′,4′-pentamoxyflavone (23),3′-hydroxy-5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (24),5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (25) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone (26),respectively.Compounds 3-8,10-13,15,16,20-24 were obtained from the genus Murraya for the first time,and compound 17 were isolated from M. paniculata for the first time.
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    Chemical composition analysis of scammony resin by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS
    KAHAR Gulmira, ABDULLA Rahima, LUO Yu-qin, WU Tao, AISA Hajiakber
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 427-443.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.009
    Abstract682)      PDF(pc) (1377KB)(10)       Save
    The rapid analysis method for the chemical compositions in scammony methanol extract was established by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS.The mass data were acquired by Full MS/dd-MS scan mode,and data analysis were performed by the information of accuracy molecular weight,fragment ion,summarized fragmentation pathway,combined with previous references and Compound Discovery(CD) software.Totally,92 compounds were identified from scammony methanol extract,including 72 resin glycosides,12 hydroxyl cinnamoyl quinic acids,eight ether insoluble resin glycoside acids.Among them,eight ether insoluble resin glycoside acids (compounds 10,12,13,16,17,18,19 and 20) and two tricaffeoylquinic acids (compounds 14 and 15) were detected first in scammony.The results provide a scientific basis for the future research on the improvement of the quality standard for scammony and its relative products.
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    Toddalia asiatica promotes lipopolysaccharide-induced autophagy and inhibits inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells based on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
    ZHANG Zong-xing, JIANG Lu, LIU Dao-zhong, HOU Zi-ming, TIAN Meng-jie, TAO Bo-nan, FENG Jia, YUAN Lin
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (4): 573-583.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.4.003
    Abstract585)      PDF(pc) (1863KB)(5)       Save
    The root of the Rutaxaceae plant Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam is a natural Tujia Chinese herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory,anti-rheumatic,anti-tumor,anti-microbial and other pharmacological activities.Its characteristics of small poisonous side effects and remarkable curative effect make it a hot spot in current research.Many natural products had been shown to inhibit inflammation and autoimmune diseases by targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR mediated autophagy.In this study,the effect of TAAE on autophagy was studied by regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway,and RAW 264.7 cells were induced by LPS to establish an inflammatory model.Cytotoxicity detection kit was used to detect the effect of TAAE on cell viability,the concentration and intervention time of the drug were screened out.Transmission electron microscopy and MDC staining were used to detect the biological function of macrophages.The levels of inflammatory factors in the supernatant were detected by ELISA,and the expression levels of autophagy and pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blot.The effects of autophagy on inflammation and signaling pathways were further verified by using an early autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) and pathway PI3K agonist (740Y-P).The results indicated that TAAE may inhibit the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway,promote the formation of autophagic vesicles,fusion and degradation of autophagosomal lysosomes,and reduce the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS.Overall,the results of this study provide a new clue for the research of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Toddalia asiatica,and provide a theoretical basis for better clinical application of Toddalia asiatica in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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    Historical evolution and research status of processing of Cyperi Rhizoma
    CHEN Yi-long, LI Na, CHU Rui, LI Sheng-rong
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (4): 722-731.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.4.018
    Abstract533)      PDF(pc) (948KB)(5)       Save
    Cyperi Rhizoma,the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L.,is commonly used in gynecology,which is considered to be the most important drug for regulating of painful menstruation.It is generally used after processing in clinic.In this paper,the processing methods of Cyperi Rhizoma in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the processing specifications of various provinces were summarized.As well as the efficacy of TCM theories and pharmacological effects of different processed products,and the basis of medicinal substances and mechanism of action after processing were summarized.The perfection and improvement of processing specifications of Cyperi Rhizoma,the discovery of other effective components and the exploration of action mechanism were prospected.It can provide reference for the in-depth study of the processing of Cyperi Rhizoma.
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    Compounds from Murraya tetramera Huang and their cytotoxic activity (Ⅲ)
    ZHOU Yong-fu, YAO Ru-jie, LI Xue-ming, YANG Cheng-wei
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (4): 622-629.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.4.009
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (638KB)(4)       Save
    In order to study the pharmacodynamic material basis of the Murraya tetramera Huang;in this paper,fifteen compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of its alcohol extract by modern chromatographic separation technology.And Identified the structure of the compounds by NMR spectroscopy,which were luteolin-7-O-glucoside(1),3,4-dihydroxy benzeneacrylic acid(2),2-hydroxylcinnamie acid(3),3,8-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-coumarin(4),2-methyl-6-hydroxychromone(5),chlorogenic acid(6),methyl caffeate(7),furo[3,2-α]carbazole(8),(E)-2-((4-hydroxyphenyl)diazenyl)phenol(9),N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N′-(4′-nitrophenyl)urea(10),murrayanine(11),phorbazole C(12),3-(2’-hydroxyphenyl)-4(3H)-quinazolidone(13),N-trans-feruloyl-3-methyldopamine(14),6-acetone-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine(15). All compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time.The tumor inhibitory and proliferation effects of 15 compounds were analyzed by the MTS method.The inhibitive effects of the compounds on the growth of five tumor cells in vitro were studied.Especially,the compound 1,8-15 have good growth inhibitory effect on human tumor cell lines HL-60,A-549,SMMC-7721,SW-480 and MCF-7.
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    Optimization of extraction process and composition analysis of essential oil from Amomum tsao-ko
    LIU Ju-zhao, XIAN Meng-xue, KONG Wei-hua, TIAN Xiao-li, YUAN Qiang, CUI Qi
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (5): 766-780.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.5.005
    Abstract454)      PDF(pc) (2439KB)(6)       Save
    In order to study the optimal extraction technology of essential oil from Amomum tsao-ko by steam distillation and ultrasonic organic solvent extraction.In this paper,based on single factor experiment,the extraction process of A. tsao-ko essential oil by steam distillation and ultrasonic organic solvent extraction was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN).Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to analyze the essential oil components obtained from the two extraction methods,and the models were compared.The results showed that the optimum technological parameters of A. tsao-ko essential oil extraction by steam distillation were soaking time of 53.00 min,distillation time of 72.00 min,liquid to solid ratio of 11.00 mL/g,and extraction yield of 1.59%.A total of thirty-four components were identified in A. tsao-ko essential oil obtained by steam distillation.Under the optimum conditions of ultrasonic organic solvent extraction with ultrasonic power of 150.00 W,ultrasonic time of 27.00 min and liquid to solid ratio of 6.30 mL/g,the extraction yield was 3.40% and a total of 43 components were identified.Although the extraction yield of A. tsao-ko essential oil by ultrasonic organic solvent extraction was higher than that by steam distillation,the essential oil obtained by ultrasonic organic solvent extraction was poor in quality,dark in color and heavy in impurities,which was not conducive to the subsequent application.Compared with the RSM model,the BP-ANN model had a lower error-index and a higher fitting degree in predicting extraction yield,and had higher accuracy and prediction advantages.This study will provide reliable technological parameters for the efficient extraction of A. tsao-ko essential oil and further promote the development and utilization of the medicinal and edible plant A. tsao-ko.
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    Analysis of constituents and antidepressant effect of oleoresin from the fibrous roots of Cyperus esculentus L.
    CHEN Fei, JING Si-qun, ZHANG Jun-yan, LIU Gen-mei, YE Jun, LI Yu-kuo, CAO Yong
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (4): 612-621.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.4.008
    Abstract422)      PDF(pc) (1789KB)(6)       Save
    To reveal the antidepressant effect and components of the fiber roots of Cyperus esculentus L.(FRCEL) oleoresinn.Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of FRCEL oleoresin.The mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression was established,the antidepressant effect of FRCEL oleoresin was investigated from the aspects of animal behaviors,changes of neurotransmitter content and hippocampal histopathology.it can be concluded that FRCEL oleoresin contained ketones (68.891%),esters (8.787%),alcohols (4.258%),alkenes (0.374%) and other substances (12.879%),and the main components are α-cyperone (59.536%) and germacrone (5.875%).After CUMS model mice were administered,FRCEL oleoresin significantly shortened the rest time of forced swimming and tail suspension.The total distance,average speed and duration of the center were significantly increased.The content of 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) and norepinephrine(NE) in the serum of mice were significantly increased in the high-dose FRCEL oleoresin group.The hippocampal cells of mice in the high-dose FRCEL oleoresin group were arranged neatly,and the cell membrane of neurons was basically intact.FRCEL oleoresin may improve depression-like behavior by regulating the expression of 5-HT and NE in the serum of CUMS depression model mice,repairing the damage of hippocampus in mice.
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    Study on chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activity of the pomace of Siraitia grosvenorii
    WU Juan-jiang, HUANG Hua-xue, LI Wen-chu, WANG Bin, GONG Li-min, SHENG Wen-bing, JIAN Yu-qing, WANG Wei
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (7): 1124-1134.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.7.003
    Abstract408)      PDF(pc) (843KB)(10)       Save
    The chemical constituents from the pomace fraction with water extract of Siraitia grosvenorii,and the anti-inflammatory activity in vitro were studied.The chemical constituents from the pomace fraction of Siraitia grosvenorii were isolated with various chromatographic separation techniques,and their structures were determined by entirely analyzing MS and NMR spectrums,there are oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1),oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronyl-6′-ethyl ester (2),(3α)-7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3),3,29-O-dibenzoyloxykarounidiol (4),isomultiflorenol (5),curcasinlignan B (6),urolignoside (7),diospyrosin (8),evofolin B (9),4′-hydroxyphenyl ethyl vanillate (10),aurantiamide (11),kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (12),kaempferitrin (13),kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (14),kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside-7-O-β-D-xylosyl(1→2)-O-α-L-rhamnoside (15),sagittatin A (16),cucurbita-5,24-diene-3β-ol (17),balsaminol E (18),soya-cerebroside Ⅰ (19),β-sitosterol (20),β-daucosterol (21),7α-hydroxycholesterol (22),2E-4-hydroxy-nonenoic acid (23),vanillain (24),p-hydroxy-benzeneethanol (25),β-hydroxypropiovanillone (26).Compounds 2 and 6-11 were first isolated from Cucurbitaceae and compounds 1,3,4,14-16,18,19 and 22-26 were first isolated from Siraitia.Compounds 1-26 were preliminarily examined for anti-inflammatory activity in vitro,compounds 4,5,7,13,19 and 21 suppressed the production of TNF-α,compounds 13 and 21 both inhibited the production of IL-1β and IL-6,compounds 7,19 and 22 inhibited the production of IL-1β,compound 5 inhibited the production of IL-6.
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    Identification of UPLC characteristics spectrum of four original plants of Rabdosiae Herba
    XIAO Xiao-ji, QIU Jia-jia, LIU Jun-min, ZHAO Shuang-shuang, GU Jing-feng, WANG De-qin, ZHAN Ruo-ting
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 1038-1048.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.013
    Abstract328)      PDF(pc) (1619KB)(3)       Save
    The purpose of this paper is to establish the UPLC characteristics spectrum method for the identification of four original plants of Rabdosiae Herba,Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) H.Hara,Rabdosia lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don) H.Hara,Rabdosia lophanthoides var. graciliflora (Benth.) H.Hara and Rabdosia stracheyi (Benth.ex Hook.f.) Hara.The similarity evaluation of characteristic chromatograms,cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were combined,which was used to study the common components and differential components of four original plants of Rabdosiae Herba.19,24,26 and 21 characteristic peaks were determined from the characteristic chromatograms of R. serraR.  lophanthoidesR. lophanthoides var. graciliflora and R. stracheyi.In addition to R.serra,the similarity of the samples of the other three original plants was high,but there were some differences in similarity between different original plants.R. serra could be clearly distinguished from the other three original plants by CA and PCA and OPLS-DA could be used to distinguish R. lophanthoides, R. lophanthoides var. graciliflora and R. stracheyi.The UPLC characteristics spectrum established in this study combined with chemometrics comprehensively reflected the chemical composition of four original plants of Rabdosiae Herba,and the method is simple,rapid and specific,which can provide a reference for the identification,quality analysis and evaluation of original plants of Rabdosiae Herba.
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    Quality difference between Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus and Fritillariae Hupehensis Bulbus based on HPLC-ELSD fingerprints and multi-component quantitative analysis
    LIANG Yue-yi, LI Zhen-yu, LYU Wei-sheng, LU Xiao-ying, YANG Jie, LIU Xiao-xia, WEI Cui-jie, SUN Dong-mei
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (7): 1101-1111.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.7.001
    Abstract320)      PDF(pc) (1746KB)(4)       Save
    The HPLC-ELSD fingerprints of Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus (FTB) and Fritillariae Hupehensis Bulbus (FHB) were established to compare the differences between the two herbs combined with multi-component quantitative analysis.The chromatographic column was Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm).The gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min with acetonitrile -0.1% triethylamine solution as the mobile phase.The column temperature was 38 ℃.Evaporative light scattering detection was used.The HPLC-ELSD fingerprints of FTB and FHB were established.The differences between FTB and FHB were compared by chemometrics methods and simultaneous determination of five alkaloid components.The results showed that the fingerprints of FTB had seven common peaks and the fingerprints of FHB had eight peaks.Six peaks were identified,namely yibeissine,peimisine,peimine,peiminine,isofritillarine and hupehenine.Among the above ingredients,hupehenine was the specific component of FHB.Both HCA and PCA could distinguish FTB and FHB well.OPLS-DA found four different markers.The content determination results showed that the content of peimine in FTB was significantly higher than that in FHB,while the contents of peimisine,peiminine and isofritillarine were significantly lower than that in FHB.This method can effectively identify the quality differences between FTB and FHB,and provide reference for their quality control.
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    Advance on the effect of processing on the chemical components of Gastrodia elata
    CHEN Gang, LI Hong, WANG Yong-de, WU Zhen
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 539-549.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.020
    Abstract318)      PDF(pc) (2344KB)(8)       Save
    As a famous and rare medicinal material and the pilot variety of homology of medicine and food,the output and consumption of Gastrodia elata gradually increase.The effects of processing on its chemical compounds and bioactivities have become the focus of various research.The research progress of G. elata in recent five years were analyzed from the perspective of the effects of different processing (steaming and drying as representative) on the nutritional components (e.g.,starch,protein,and vitamins,etc.) and functional components (e.g.,adenosine,phenolics and phenolic glycosides,and bioactive polysaccharides,etc.) and microstructure of G. elata slices.We found a certain degree of relationship between changes in chemical compositions and microstructures of G. elata during processing,and revealed the internal mechanism of processing on chemical compositions and microstructures of G. elata.Finally,the development and utilization status of G. elata were proposed.It provides the foundation and basis for deep processing and multi-functional exploitation of G. elata.
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    Research progress on antioxidative property of ergothioneine and its intervention in oxidative stress-related diseases
    GAO Qing-ying, XU Jian-xiong
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 1081-1087.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.017
    Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (670KB)(10)       Save
    Ergothioneine (ERG) is a kind of sulfur-containing amino acid existing in nature.It has been widely used in food,medicine,cosmetics and other fields in recent years for the reasons that it has strong ability of scavenging free radicals,anti-aging and the characters of natural,safe,non-toxic.As a natural and efficient antioxidant,ergothioneine plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.This paper reviewed the structure,properties and antioxidant properties,as well as progress in search of the role and mechanism of ergothioneine in the intervention of diseases related to oxidative stress,which provides a reference for the multiple application of ergothioneine.
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    Quality analysis of Hirudo with different origins and its adulterants
    LI Guo-wei, QIU Yun-jing, TONG Pei-zhen, HU Qi-ping, DENG Li-ping, YANG Li, SUN Dong-mei
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 997-1006.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.009
    Abstract298)      PDF(pc) (1321KB)(5)       Save
    HPLC method was used to establish the characteristic chromatogram of Hirudo and the contents of 5 components were determined,which provides a basis for quality evaluation of different origins Hirudo and its adulterants.The Chinese medicine chromatographic fingerprint similarity evaluation system (2012 version) was used to analyze the results of the characteristic chromatogram.The results showed that there were eight common peaks in 27 batches of Whitmania pigra Whitman and five peaks were identified by comparison with reference substances,respectively,which were uracil,hypoxanthine,xanthine,hirudine C carboxyl derivatives and hirudine B.The SIMCA-P 14.0 software were used for cluster analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) that both of them can distinguish Hirudo of different origins and its adulterants into four different classes.In addition,the content determination results showed that there were some differences in the content of Hirudo with different origins and its adulterants.The average content of uracil and hypoxanthine was in the order of Whitmania pigra Whitman>Hirudo nipponica Whitman>Whitmania acranulata Whitman>Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson;the average content of xanthine was in the order of Whitmania pigra Whitman>Hirudo nipponica Whitman>Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson>Whitmania acranulata Whitman;the average content of hirudine C carboxyl derivatives was in the order of  Whitmania acranulata Whitman>Whitmania pigra Whitman>Hirudo nipponica Whitman>Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson;the average content of hirudine B was in order of Whitmania acranulata Whitman>Whitmania pigra Whitman>Hirudo nipponica Whitman>Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson.The method established in this study can be used as a quality evaluation method for Hirudo with different origins and its adulterants,and provide a reference for the quality evaluation of Whitmania pigra Whitman.

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    Optimization of microwave processing technology for honey roast Astragalus membranaceus by response surface method combined with overall desirability and normalization method with multi-index
    HOU Min-na, HOU Shao-ping, LIANG Rui-feng, WANG Shan, XU Hai-yan
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 467-476.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.013
    Abstract296)      PDF(pc) (1546KB)(4)       Save
    To optimize the microwave process of honey roast Astragalus membranaceus by response surface method (RSM) combined with overall desirability.On the basis of single factor experiment,the response surface optimization experiment was conducted on the four factors of honey roast A. membranaceus,honey dosage,stuffy moist time,processing time and microwave power by taking the total flavonoids,total saponin extraction rate,water-soluble extract content and the total evaluation normalization value of the appearance of the decoction pieces as evaluation indicators.Finally,the optimum technological conditions were obtained as follows:processing time of 81 s,honey dosage of 34%,microwave power of 82%,moist time of 6.1 h.At this time,the contents of total flavone,saponins,water-soluble extract were 0.351 0%, 0.589 4%, 24.71% and appearance score of slices was 90 respectively.The processing technology of microwave honey roast A. membranaceus was reasonable,stable and feasible,which can provide a theoretical reference for the industrial production of honey roast A. membranaceus, and also provide new research ideas and methods for the processing of other traditional Chinese medicines.
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    Screening on antimicrobial activity of extracts from 21 medicinal plants and analysis of its chemical components
    LIANG Jing, FAN Guo-quan, FANG Tao, LI Jin, ZHANG Jun-gao, ZHOU Xiao-yun, GONG Jing-yun, LEI Bin
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (4): 562-572.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.4.002
    Abstract291)      PDF(pc) (1682KB)(5)       Save
    In order to explore the medicinal activity of plant resources in Xinjiang.In this study,the antifungal activities of extracts from 21 medicinal plants in Xinjiang were screened and determined by mycelium growth rate method,with Fusarium oxysporum,Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides as target fungi.Then,the ethanol extract of Datura stramoniumwas analyzed and identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS),related databases and literatures.The results showed that among the 21 plant extracts, D. stramonium had good antifungal activity against three cotton pathogens.A total of 21 chemical components of ethanol extract of D. stramonium were identified by LC-MS,The main chemical constituents includedg ten alkaloids,four lipids,two phenolic acids,two organic acids and other compounds.Among them,alkaloids were the main components,accounting for 47.62% of the total.Alkaloids may be the main antifungal components of D. stramonium due to their significant antifungal activity.
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    Mechanism of olibanum in the treatment of acute kidney injury based on network pharmacology and in vitro cell experiment verification
    BAI Juan, ZHANG Yan, HONG Shu-xia, SHI Jin-ping, XU Li-ting, WANG Fang
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (9): 1613-1623.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.9.015
    Abstract280)      PDF(pc) (2101KB)(94)       Save
    To study the mechanism of olibanum on acute kidney injury (AKI) based on network pharmacology,and establish an in vitro model of human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) according to the results.To search 223 drug targets through the TCMSP database and the Swiss Target Prediction database,then using the OMIM,DisGeNet,DrugBank and GeneCards database to collect 1 245 disease targets,72 drug-disease targets were obtained through the Venn diagram tool.Protein interaction PPI network was constructed by String database;GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis were performed using DAVID database;Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct the network diagram;Molecular docking was performed by Autodock.Involving Toll-like receptor、TNF、NF-kappa B and other signaling pathways.Based on this,the proliferation of HK-2 was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method,and the grouping was determined.The rate of cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst33258 fluorescent staining,and the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to detect the relative expression of MAPK3 and PPARG mRNA.The experimental results showed that in CCK-8 experiment,compared with the model group,the cell viability in low,medium and high dose groups decreased gradually (P <0.05);Hoechst33258 experiment,ELISA experiment and Q-PCR experiment,compared with the model group,the cell apoptosis rate,the capacity of cellular inflammatory factors and the molecular weight and mRNA expression of MAPK3 and PPARG protein decreased significantly (P <0.05).In conclusion,olibanum has the characteristics of multi-target and multi-pathway,which provides a basis for the clinical application of this drug.
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    Mechanism of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex in the treatment of gout based on network pharmacology,molecular docking and experimental validation
    LI Min, LI Li, QUAN Yun-yun, ZENG Jin, ZHAO Jun-ning, MAO Jiu-zhou, GONG Xiao-li, YIN Zhu-jun
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (7): 1235-1246.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.7.015
    Abstract279)      PDF(pc) (2380KB)(30)       Save
    To investigate the potential pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (PCC) in the treatment of gout by combining network pharmacology prediction,molecular docking validation and experimental validation.The active ingredients and action targets of PCC were obtained through TCMSP databases,gout-related disease targets were obtained from GeneCards,OMIM and TTD databases.The corresponding targets of the active ingredients of PCC were intersected with the gout targets,and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the intersected genes was mapped with the help of STRING platform and Cytoscape 3.9.0 software.The analysis of gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto gene and gene targets (KEGG) pathway enrichment were performed by using String and MetaScape databases and visually presented through the platform of bioinformatics.Furthermore,molecular docking technology was performed to validate the binding pattern and affinity between the key ingredients and the crucial targets by using AutoDock Tools software.A total of 25 active ingredients and 70 potential key targets for the treatment of gout was screened in PCC. The enrichment of GO function and KEGG pathway showed that PCC might positively regulate cell migration,negatively regulate cell differentiation,inflammatory response,positively regulate cell adhesion,protein phosphorylation,DNA transcription and other biological processes.The most crucial biotargets of PCC against gout were protein kinase B1 (AKT1),tumor necrosis factor (TNF),peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ),interleukin-6 (IL-6),prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2),and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that PCC possessed anti-gout activity by regulating PI3K-Akt signaling pathway,MAPK signaling pathway.The molecular docking results showed that the binding energy between the key biotargets and the five potential active components were much less than -5 kcal/mol.In vitro experiments showed that the core chemical components exhibited potent inhibitory effect on the inflammatory response induced by sodium urate crystal.This study initially revealed PCC has a variety of potential anti-gout active components,and its mechanism may be achieved by modulating multiple biotargets and multiple signal transduction pathways.
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    Total components analysis of Zanthoxylum bugeanum seeds from different orgins
    WU Juan-juan, ZHANG Jia-yu, SHI Shi-lei, LIAN Yun-he, CHENG Yuan-xin, WU Ya-ming, CAI Xing-fu, WU Di
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (5): 837-851.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.5.012
    Abstract276)      PDF(pc) (2753KB)(6)       Save
    Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds are the main byproduct of Z. bungeanum.At present,the researches of Z. bungeanum seeds mainly focus on lipid,and less researches on other chemical components.The chemical composition and nutrient composition of Z. bungeanum seeds from Jinyang,Hanyuan and Wudu were analyzed using chemical method and chromatographic technique to fully exploit nature resources.Results indicated that 92 volatile compounds and 28 non-volatile compounds were identified in three samples.The volatile components were mainly alcohols,carbonyls,esters,terpenes,of which only seven compounds were same components,and the non-volatile components were mainly phenols,alkaloids,fatty acids,coumarins,lignans,of which 18 compounds were same components.Meanwhile,the nutritional composition,including protein,oil and sugar,were analyzed in this paper.Through the systematic research of this paper,the material basis and research ideas were provided to further develop the edible and commercial value of Z. bungeanum seeds.
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    Isolation and indentification of an endophytic fungus X-396 from Hypecoum leptocarpum Hook.f.et Thoms.and analysis on fat-soluble components of its fermentation
    TAN Hui, PI Li, YANG Xiao-long, AN Ting, GUO Xu-dong, LIU Yan-ping, WEN Huai-xiu
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 420-426.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.008
    Abstract265)      PDF(pc) (963KB)(3)       Save
    An endophytic fungus X-396 was isolated from the leaves of Hypecoum leptocarpum Hook.f.et Thoms. through a tissue separating method.The endophytic fungus X-396 was identified as Diaporthe sp.YG-2015 according to the morphologic observation and ITS sequence analysis.Its fat-soluble components of fermentation were further studied with GC-MS,and antitumor activity was measured by CCK-8 assay.35 kinds of fat-soluble components were detected and identified.The findings showed that the main components of fat-soluble components in fermentation of X-396 were ergosterol (31.83%), β-stitosterol (12.00%) and methyl hexadecanoate (4.22%).Antitumor activity test in vitro showed that the fat-soluble components of fermentation had different degrees of inhibitory effects on human tumor cell lines A549,MCF-7 and HepG2,and HepG2 had the best inhibitory effect with IC50 of 22.65 μg/mL.The results indicate that the fat-soluble components of endophytic fungus X-396 fermentation have the potential to produce antitumor active compounds,and deserve to be deeply investigated.
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    Progress on the structural characteristic and biological activity of Polygonati Rhizoma polysaccharides
    TIAN Lei, LIU Chun-yan, HAN Jun, WANG Guo-dong,
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 519-530.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.018
    Abstract265)      PDF(pc) (1380KB)(33)       Save
    The Chinese herb Polygonati Rhizoma,which is the dried rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum Delar.ex Redoute,Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl and Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua in genus Polygonatum,family Liliaceae,has a long history of medicinal use.The Polygonati Rhizoma polysaccharide is one of the most important active compounds in Polygonati Rhizoma,which has various biological activities such as antioxidant,immune modulation,anti-tumor,anti-osteoporosis,hypoglycemic,hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerosis effects,etc.It has become a hot spot for the development and application research of Polygonati Rhizoma.In this article,the recent domestic and foreign literatures on the structural characteristics,biological activities and action mechanisms of Polygonati Rhizoma polysaccharides were summarized,which provide some reference for the in-depth research and development of Polygonati Rhizoma.
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    Research progress on pharmacological action and mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides
    ZHANG Ruo-bing, YANG Yu-he, LI Chen-xue, LI Wen-lan
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (5): 879-887.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.5.016
    Abstract261)      PDF(pc) (1281KB)(12)       Save
    Ganoderma lucidum is an important dual-use fungus with a long history both at medicinal and edible.At present,about 100 species of G. lucidum are known.Polysaccharide is one of the main active ingredient of G. lucidum.It can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of tumor cells,regulate congenital immune cells,microbial groups and the expression of inflammatory factors in the body,and terminate reactions of free radical chain.It can also increase the vitality of cells and antioxidant enzymes,regulate the metabolism of lipids and organic compounds in the liver,inhibit the apoptosis of myocardial cells,inhibit the activation of microglia and astrocyte,etc.Thus,it has pharmacological effects such as anti-tumor,immunomodulatory,anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic,hypolipidemic, anti-fatigue,anti-oxidation,protection myocardial and liver,regulating central nervous system and so on.In this paper,the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of G. lucidum polysaccharides in recent three years are reviewed,with a view to provide reference for further development and utilization of G. lucidum polysaccharides.
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    Research progress on chemical constituents,pharmacological activities and quality control methods of Clerodendranthus spicatus
    ZHAO Yu-hui, XIANG Cheng, XU Tian-rui, HAO Qian
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (7): 1247-1264.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.7.016
    Abstract261)      PDF(pc) (2224KB)(1)       Save
    As a well-known national medicine,Clerodendranthus spicatus has a long history medicinal in our country.It is rich in flavonoids,phenylpropanoids and terpenoids and other chemical components,with heat-clearing and dampness-removing,stone-removing diuresis,anti-inflammatory,antioxidant and antibacterial and other pharmacological activities,the authenticity of kidney tea is very important to the efficacy.This paper reviews the chemical composition,pharmacological activity and quality control methods of C. spicatus,in order to provide reference for the further study of the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of kidney tea and the detection of the quality of C. spicatus.
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    Study on HPLC fingerprint and chemical pattern recognition of triterpenoids in Poriae Cutis and White Poria
    ZHAN Hui-hui, DING Chan, PENG Si-yuan, LIU Yuan, MENG Jun-hua, XIAO Zuo-wei, CUI Pei-wu
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (9): 1469-1479.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.9.001
    Abstract260)      PDF(pc) (1323KB)(35)       Save
    In this study,HPLC analysis combined with chemical pattern recognition was employed to establish the HPLC fingerprint related to triterpenoids in Poriae Cutis and White Poria,which can provide a reference for quality control and standard establishment of decoction pieces derived from mycomedicine Poria cocos.HPLC method was adopted and performed on an Agilent 5 TC-C18 (2) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm).The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile and 0.3% phosphoric acid solution,and gradient elution procedure was employed with the flow rate setting at 1.0 mL/min.The column temperature was set at 25 °C,the detection wavelength was set at 242 and 203 nm,and the injection volume was 10 μL,respectively.To establish the HPLC fingerprint and chemical pattern recognition of Poriae Cutis and White Poria,cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA) and similarity evaluation were adopted to process the experimental data,the similarity and difference of Poriae Cutis and White Poria samples were analyzed subsequently.Finally,the key chromatographic peaks representing triterpenoids were pointed out from the established HPLC fingerprint.Among the common chemical components showed in the chromatograms,six peaks related to poricoic acid B (peak 2),dehydrotumulosic acid (peak 3),poricoic acid A (peak 4),dehydropachymic acid (peak 9),pachymic acid (peak 10),and dehydrotrametenolic acid (peak 10) were indentified,respectively.The similarity of tested decoction pieces from the same part of P. cocos sclerotium were all above 0.90.According to CA and PCA data,all the decoction pieces analyzed in this study can be divided into two groups representing different medicinal parts of P. cocos sclerotium.Seven common chromatographic peaks including peak 3 (dehydrotumulosic acid),peak 5,peak 6,peak 8,peak 9 (dehydropachymic acid),peak 10 (pachymic acid) and peak 11 were essential for the quality evaluation of Poriae Cutis and White Poria,the other eight chromatographic peaks including peak 1,peak 2 (poricoic acid B),peak 4 (poricoic acid A),peak 7,peak 12 (dehydrotrametenolic acid) and peaks 13 to 15 could be used as the characteristic identification peaks for evaluating the quality of Poriae Cutis according to the loading scatter analysis of PCA data.The characteristic difference deduced from the 15 common chromatographic peaks of White Poria samples was smaller than that of Poriae Cutis samples.The established HPLC fingerprint of Poriae Cutis and White Poria combined with chemical pattern recognition can provide a scientific reference for the quality control and evaluation of samples or products derived from P. cocos .

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    Study on the effect of asperosaponin VI on neurogenesis and cognitive function in sleep-deprived mice
    WANG Mei, LIU Yu-e, SU Da-peng, WANG Ying-xue, CHEN Hong-mei, DONG Xing-xing, HUANG Shen-rong, ZHANG Jin-qiang
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (5): 733-740.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.5.001
    Abstract241)      PDF(pc) (1218KB)(2)       Save
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of asperosaponin VI (ASA VI) on cognitive function in sleep-deprived mice and the related mechanisms.C57BL/6J mice were subjected to sleep deprivation by multi-platform water environment method,during which the mice were intraperitoneally injected with ASA VI.New object recognition test and Morris water maze test were used to evaluate the cognitive function of mice.The changes in the inflammatory levels,neurogenesis and signaling pathways in hippocampus were detected by q-PCR,immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.The results showed that compared with the control group,microglia in the hippocampus of the sleep-deprived mice were activated,the expression level of inflammatory cytokines was significantly increased (P < 0.05),the number of newborn neurons was significantly decreased (P < 0.05),and the cognitive function was decreased.The ASA VI intervention group significantly improved the cognitive ability of sleep-deprived mice,inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β,TNF-α and IL-6 in hippocampus (P < 0.05),and significantly increased the expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 and neurotrophic factor BDNF (P < 0.05).At the same time,the protein expression levels of p-PI3K,PI3K and Akt,as well as the number of new neurons in hippocampus were increased by the intervention of ASA VI (P < 0.05).Treatment with PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 significantly reduced the intervention effect of ASA VI on sleep-deprived mice.These results suggested that ASA VI could improve the learning and memory of sleep-deprived mice,and its mechanism was related to the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.ASA VI has potential development prospects as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drug.
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    Quality analysis of Nymphaeae Flos based on HPLC fingerprint and QAMS
    ZUO Di-jun, LI Chen-yang, YANG Jun, XU fang, ZHAO Jun
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (7): 1112-1123.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.7.002
    Abstract238)      PDF(pc) (1626KB)(3)       Save
    To establishthe HPLC fingerprint of Nymphaeae Flos and Quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) for seven contents.The HPLC fingerprint was established by Phenomenex Gemini NX-C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm).The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution.The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min.The column temperature was 30 ℃.The detection wavelength were 266 nm. The data were studied by Similarity analysis,cluster analysis and principal component analysis.Gallic acid was used as an internal standard to calculate the relative correction factors of the other six constituents.A total of eleven common peaks were identified and seven components were identified for the analysis of 17 batches of Nymphaeae Flos.The similarity of 17 batches of samples was greater than 0.9.The HPLC similarity of two commercial samples and S16 was 0.568 and 0.730,which the results show that commercial Nymphaeae Flos were different from cultivated and wild Nymphaeae Flos.Principal component analysis,cluster analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were confirmed this conclusion.With gallic acid was the reference,the relative correction factors of methyl gallate,isostrictiniin,geraniin,ellagic acid,nicotiflorin,pentagalloylglucose were 0.965 0,0.974 0,1.201 3,0.175 4,1.160 3 and 2.117 3,RSD were 0.37%,0.38%,0.32%,1.76%,0.37% and 0.08% (n = 8).At the same time,the result obtained by QAMS approximated those obtained by external standard method (ESM).The established fingerprint and QAMS content determination method of Nymphaeae Flos were feasible and provide a reference for the improvement of the quality control method of Nymphaeae Flos.
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    Optimization of fermentation process of paraherquamide A by response surface methodology
    CHEN Xiao-na, PENG Jia-fei, WANG Pin-mei, XU Jin-zhong
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 1049-1057.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.014
    Abstract236)      PDF(pc) (1168KB)(18)       Save
    Paraherquamide A(PA) is an important raw material for the new anthelmintic drug Startect®,and its low yield limits the promotion and use of the drug.Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the fermentation process of wild Penicillium sp.KWF31 to produce PA.Eight factors of the medium were screened by Plackett-Burman test design.Among them,the dosages of soluble starch,glucose and yeast extract were found to be the key factors.The optimal concentration ranges of the three factors were examined by the steepest ascent path and the Box-Behnken design as 31.0 g/L soluble starch,12.8 g/L glucose and 14.5 g/L yeast extract,respectively.Under the optimal condition,the maximum titer of PA approached 243.7 mg/L,which was close to the theoretical value of 241.6 mg/L,and 3.4 times of the initial.
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    Secondary metabolites of endophyte Paraconiothyrium sp.YLHJ01 from Artemisia selengensis
    ZENG Qing-ting, YUAN Tao
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (5): 781-786.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.5.006
    Abstract236)      PDF(pc) (601KB)(19)       Save
    Seven compounds were isolated from the extract of the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium sp.YLHJ01,their structures were identified as one new compound,2-(1S,3R-dihydroxybutyl)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and six known compounds, 6-hydroxy-2S-methyl-4-chromanon (2),10-norparvulenone (3),(S)-7-hydroxy-3-((S)-1-hydroxyethyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (4),murranoic acid A (5),modiolide G (6),and uridine (7) by the analysis of spectroscopic data including NMR,ECD,IR and HR-ESI-MS.The cytotoxic activity in vitro assay indicated that none of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity on A549 and HepG2 cells. Antibacterial assay revealed that compounds 1 and 4 showed weak inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 400 and 100 μg/mL,respectively,while compound 2 showed weak inhibition against S. aureus and Escherichia coli with MICs of 800 and 400 μg/mL,respectively.
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    Chemical composition analysis of mango kernels by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS
    WU Jun-ying, ZHANG Wu-gang, LANG Yi-fan, HUANG Zhi-chao, YANG Wu-liang, YANG Jie , CHEN Hai-fang
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 949-965.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.004
    Abstract235)      PDF(pc) (1564KB)(7)       Save
    To systematically investigate the chemical constituents of mango kernels,ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was analyzed in this study.Electrospray ion source (ESI) was adopted to collect the data in negative ion mode.A total 135 compounds were identified according to analyze the mass data from the references and related literatures,including 47 berberine-type alkaloids,47 flavonoids,30 organic acids and three coumarins,eight iridoid glycosides.Seventeen compounds were identified in this genus for the first time.Using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technology to analyze the chemical constituents of mango kernels,which will provide a significant basis for the subsequent study of material basis and clinical application.
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    Research progress on compositions and pharmacological activities of essential oil from Chimonanthus Lindl.
    HE De-ying, XIAO Wei-yi, LI Cheng, ZOU Zheng-rong
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (9): 1624-1636.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.9.016
    Abstract223)      PDF(pc) (1502KB)(46)       Save
    Chimonanthus Lindl.is a unique traditional medicinal plant in China,with a wide distribution and abundant resources.The essential oil is one of the main active components of the plant,including terpenoids,aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds,which have pharmacological activities such as antibacterial,anti-inflammatory,antioxidant,antiviral and cough suppressant.It has good therapeutic effects on diseases such as vascular dementia,acute lung injury and ulcerative colitis.This paper presents a systematic classification of the chemical structures and synthesis pathways of essential oil components of Chimonanthus Lindl.and provides a brief overview of the related biological activities in order to make references for the further development and utilization of Chimonanthus Lindl.
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    Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of Sophora alopecuroides L. on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation of RAW 264.7 macrophages
    LI Fang, BAI Shan-ze, NIU Chun, ZHOU Ke, WEI Yan-ming, HUA Yong-li
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 387-396.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.004
    Abstract220)      PDF(pc) (2554KB)(8)       Save

    The anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of Sophora alopecuroides L. were explored and the inflammation were induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 macrophages.The water decoction extract (WDE),water ultrasonic extract (WUE),75% ethanol reflux extract (ERE) and 75% ethanol ultrasonic extract (EUE) of S. alopecuroides were prepared by water decocting,water ultrasonic,75% ethanol reflux and 75% ethanol ultrasonic.Total alkaloids extract (TAE) and total flavonoids extract (TFE) of S. alopecuroides were extracted by D101 macroporous resin adsorption method,total polysaccharides extract (TPE) of S. alopecuroides was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation.The contents of TA,TF and TP were determined by acid dye colorimetry,NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH spectrophotometry and phenol-sulfuric acid method,respectively.Nine different combinations of TAE,TFE,TPE were preliminarily designed by orthogonal method (1∶1∶1,1∶2∶2,1∶3∶3,2∶1∶2,2∶2∶3,2∶3∶1,3∶1∶3,3∶2∶1,3∶3∶2).LPS (1 μg/mL) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages to establish in vitro inflammatory model.Cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell viability,nitrate reductase was used to detect nitric oxide release,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect interleukin-1β,interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cell supernatant,the expression of p65 NF-κB,p-p65 NF-κB,IκBα and p-IκBα were detected by Western blot.The results showed that the content of TA,TF and TP were 94.79%,71.59% and 73.51% after purification.Compared with the model group,WDE,WUE,ERE,EUE,TAE,TFE,TPE and their 9 combinations significantly reduced the release of IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and NO,and 2∶1∶2 of TAE∶TFE∶TPE had the best anti-inflammatory,which significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of IкBα and p65 NF-κB(P<0.01).In conclusion,S. alopecuroides have anti-inflammatory effects on the inflammation of RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide,The 2∶1∶2 of TAE∶TFE∶TPE had the best anti-inflammatory effect,which alleviated the LPS-induced inflammatory response of RAW 264.7 macrophages by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and the transcription expression of downstream inflammatory mediators.

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    Chemical constituents of Senecio scandens and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity
    FU Tao, LI Ya-li, ZHANG Wei, WU Jiang-mei, LIU Yang, LUO Xin-xiang, YAN Xiao-hui, HU Shi-jun
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (9): 1554-1561.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.9.009
    Abstract214)      PDF(pc) (778KB)(24)       Save
    In order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new plant virus inhibitors,the chemical components of Senecio scandens and its activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were determined.The chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extract from the aboveground part of S. scandens were separated by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI and other column chromatography methods,and its structures were identified by NMR and MS data.The inhibitory activity of the compound against TMV was screened by the half-leaf spot method in vivo.Thirteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of S. scandens. According to their physicochemical properties and spectral data,they were identified as 9,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3-one (1),7β-methoxystigmast-5-en-3β-ol (2),dotriacontane (3),ursolic acid (4),stigmasterol (5),(22E)-ergosta-6,22-diene-3β,5β,8α-triol (6),kaempferol (7),indole-3-carboxaldehyde (8),nepetin (9),quetrcetin (10),taxifolin (11),jacaranone (12),phytol (13).Except compound 7 and compound 10,the other compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.The results showed that compound 8 and compound 13 had strong anti-TMV activity.
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    Effect of decocting time on chemical composition and anti-fatigue effect of Triphala decoction
    DENG Xuan, QIU Min, HUANG Hao-zhou, FAN San-hu, ZHANG Ding-kun, LUO Chuan-hong, HAN Li, LIN Jun-zhi
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (7): 1212-1221.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.7.013
    Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (2476KB)(2)       Save
    To explore the effect of decocting time on the component transformation and anti-fatigue effect of Triphala decoction.HPLC method was used to track the changes of ingredients in Triphala decoction during decoction.Twelve differential compounds were screened through partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and seven of these were identified as gallic acid,chebulic acid,chebulinic acid,chebulagic acid,ethyl gallate,ellagic acid and corilagin.During the decoction,the contents of chebulinic acid,chebulagic acid,ethyl gallate and ellagic acid all decreased while the gallic acid and chebulic acid increased.Corilagin′s content increased first,then reduced.The anti-fatigue effect of Triphala decoction with different extraction times was then evaluated.The longer the decoction time,the more potent the anti-fatigue effect was,according to the results of swimming time and 11 fatigue-related markers in mice.Gallic acid and chebulic acid,among the differential compounds,have the greatest impact on the anti-fatigue effect.It demonstrates how decocting can encourage the hydrolysis of the macromolecular tannins in Triphala decoction into gallic acid and chebulic acid,which can improve the anti-fatigue effect of Triphala decoction.
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    Optimization of the extraction process of total phenolic acid from Trollii Flos by response surface methodlogy and study on its whitening activity
    DU Ruo-jun, SHI Zhao-hua, ZHAN Zhi-lai, HU Jun-jie, ZHENG Guo-hua
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 915-924.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.001
    Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (2087KB)(18)       Save
    Box-Behnken design experiments in response surface analysis were used to optimize the process conditions for the ethanol reflux extraction of total phenolic acid from Trollii Flos,and the scavenging ability of total phenolic acid from Trollii Flos on DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals and its inhibitory effect on tyrosinase were also studied.The results showed that the optimum extraction process of total phenolic acid from Trollii Flos was:ethanol concentration 60%,reflux time 90 min,reflux temperature 60 ℃,liquid to solid ratio 40∶1 (mL/g).The yield of total phenolic acid from Trollii Flos under these conditions was 92.245 mg/g.In addition,it had certain scavenging ability to DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals,and could significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity.The extract method is stable and reliable,and the total phenolic acid from Trollii Flos has certain in vitro antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effect,which lays the foundation for further scientific and rational development and utilization of Trollii Flos.
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    Mechanism of active ingredients from Scutellaria Radix on alcoholic liver disease based on network pharmacology and molecular docking and effect verification
    YE Jing-rong, LIU Rui, CHENG Cheng, ZHANG Feng-ying, YANG Xue
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (9): 1602-1612.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.9.014
    Abstract211)      PDF(pc) (2851KB)(43)       Save
    Network pharmacology and molecular docking technology were adopted to explore the possible mechanism of Scutellaria Radix in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease.The therapeutic effect of active ingredient of Scutellaria Radix on alcoholic liver disease was verified by cell experiment in vitro.The effective components and targets of Scutellaria Radix were retrieved from TCMSP,Swiss ADME and Swiss Target Prediction databases;The disease targets related to alcoholic liver disease were retrieved from GeneCards,OMIM,DisGeNET,TTD and PharmGKB databases;Using String database to build target interaction network;Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis were conducted for key targets through metascape database.The "active ingredient target pathway" interaction network of Scutellaria Radix for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease was constructed by using Cytoscape 3.8.0 software,and the active ingredient and key target of Scutellaria Radix were screened for molecular docking.Based on the results of network pharmacology and molecular docking,the prediction results were preliminarily verified by cell experiments in vitro.A total of 27 active components of Scutellaria Radix were obtained after ADME screening,and these 27 active components could play a therapeutic role in alcoholic liver disease through 257 gene targets,among which the key core targets are SRC,AKT1,PIK3R1,STAT3,PIK3CA,etc.The enrichment analysis of KEGG signal pathway showed that the main signal pathways of Scutellaria Radix in treating alcoholic liver disease included cancer pathway,PI3K Akt signal pathway,lipid and atherosclerosis,chemical carcinogenic reactive oxygen species,prostate cancer,etc;Molecular docking results suggest that Alpinetin may be one of the key effective ingredients of Scutellaria Radix in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease;In vitro cell experiments proved that Alpinetin could significantly improve the alcoholic injury of rat liver cells BRL3A.Through the results of network pharmacology,molecular docking technology and cell experiment,it can be analyzed and inferred that Scutellaria Radix can play a role in the prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease through multi-component and multi target methods.As a key active ingredient,Alpinetin can provide basis and reference for further development of drugs related to the treatment of alcoholic liver injury by using Scutellaria Radix.
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    Isolation and purification of Qi-Gui polysaccharides and their in vitro inhibitory activity on tumor cell proliferation
    LIU Wen-juan, MA Shan-bo, LU Wen-fei, CUI Dong-xiao, XU Ding-qiao, YUE Shi-jun, CAO Wei, TANG Yu-ping
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (10): 1651-1658.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.10.001
    Abstract211)      PDF(pc) (1607KB)(32)       Save
    Astragali Radix-Angelica Sinensis Radix (Qi-Gui herb pair) has long been used as a classic herb pair for tonifying qi and nourishing blood.Polysaccharide is one of its major active ingredients.Two of the Qi-Gui polysaccharides named AAPS-1a and AAPS-3a,significantly inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells HCT116 and human lung carcinoma cells A549,with IC50 of (47.59±1.3) μg/mL,(18.33±2.5) μg/mL for HCT116 cells,and IC50 of (52.12±1.1) μg/mL,(170.21±2.3) μg/mL for A549 cells.Furthermore,AAPS-1a and AAPS-3a induced apoptosis in HCT116 and A549 cells.The apoptotic rate of the HCT116 cells were 31.4%,46.5% respectively and the apoptotic rate of the A549 cells were 19.3% and 33.0% separately.Structural analysis showed that AAPS-1a and AAPS-3a were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 7.3×105 and 8.5×104 Da,respectively.Our study found two homogeneous Qi-Gui polysaccharides with significant anti-tumor activity in vitro,which provide experimental basis for clarifying the anti-tumor structure of polysaccharides in Qi-Gui herb pair.
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    Chemical constituents from Mongolian medicine Inulae Radix
    MAO Ting, MAO Le, ZHANG Ping, GAO Bai-qing, ZHANG Yong
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 973-980.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.006
    Abstract208)      PDF(pc) (524KB)(11)       Save

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of the Mongolian medicine Inulae Radix.The compounds were separated and purified by RP-HPLC and silver nitrate silica gel chromatography,and the structures of the compounds were identified by applying NMR and MS spectroscopy.Twenty-two monomeric compounds were isolated and identified as follows:5α,6α-dihydroxy-eudesma-11(13)-dien-12,8β-olide(1),4α-hydroxy-5-methoxy-5,8α-dimethyl-3-methylenedecahydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan-2-one (2),1(10),4(5),11(13)-germa-cradiene-8,12-olide (3),alantolactone (4),isoalantolactone (5),11,13-dihydro-5(6)-dine-alantolactone (6),alloalantolactone (7),4α,5β-epoxy-1(10),11(13)-germacra-dien-12,8α-olide (8),sseptuplinolide (9),8-epi-ivangustin (10),santamarine (11),racemosalactone A (12),3-oxo-eudesma-4(11)-dien-12,8β-olide (13),telekin (14),igalane (15),macrophyllilactone E (16),4α,15-epoxy-isoalantolactone (17),11,13-dihydroxy-alantolactone (18),1(2),4(15),11(3)-eudesma-trien-12,8β-olide (19),linolenic (20),linoleic acid (21),oleic acid (22).Compound 1 was a new sesquiterpenoes.Compounds 2,3,9-14,17,19-22 were isolated from genus Inula for the first time.Compounds 4-8,15,16,18 have been reported from Inulae Radix.

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    Study on the mechanism of seven classic prescriptions for treating ulcerative colitis based on network pharmacology
    HUANG You, LI Sha, WU Qiu-hong, ZHU Rui, LIN Xia, YANG Sha-sha, FU Chao-mei , ZHANG Zhen
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (4): 662-676.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.4.014
    Abstract207)      PDF(pc) (3070KB)(11)       Save
    Network pharmacology and bioinformatics techniques were used to analyze the mechanisms of seven classic prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome types from The Expert Consensus on Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis (2017) for treating ulcerative colitis (UC) to screen common and special important components,targets,and pathways in UC treatment.The important targets of UC with spleen and kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD-UC) were verified experimentally.Four common important components,42 common important targets,30 special important components,and 14 special important targets were screened from seven classic prescriptions for treating UC by network pharmacology.According to KEGG pathway analysis,common important targets mainly involved inflammation and disease-related pathways.The special pathways mainly involved disease-related pathways (such as Alzheimer′s disease) and inflammatory-related pathways (such as HIF-1 and T cell receptors).AutoDock Vina was employed for the molecular docking verification of important components and targets.Animal models of SKYD-UC were established by "diet deficiency + excess fatigue + senna leaf gavage + dextran sulfate sodium".Fuzi-Lizhong pill suspension (1.2 g/kg) was given for 21 days,and ELISA was carried out to verify the important targets.In animal experiments,compared with the SKYD-UC group,the Fuzi-Lizhong pill group can effectively reduce tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the SKYD-UC rats (P<0.001).The common mechanism of the seven classic prescriptions for treating UC may be regulating immunity,eliminating inflammation,regulating apoptosis,anti-cancer,etc.Fuzi-Lizhong pill can regulate important targets such as TNF-α and IL-6 and participates in the treatment of SKYD-UC rats,where the mechanism may be related to the regulation of T cell receptors and other pathways.At the same time,β-sitosterol,stigmasterol,betulinic acid,kaempferol,and other important components may be involved in treating different TCM syndromes of UC.This provides a reference for the potential drug discovery and clinical precision treatment of UC with different TCM syndromes as well as for the potential specific evaluation index of UC syndrome differentiation.

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     Lignans from Eucommia ulmoides barks and their protective effect on high-glucose-stimulated human renal mesangial cells
    HUANG Ling, SU Yan-hong, JIANG Yue-ping, ZHANG Yan, LUO Rong-yao, ZHANG Ying-fan, HUANG Qi
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (3): 405-409.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.3.006
    Abstract204)      PDF(pc) (600KB)(6)       Save
    To study the lignans compound from Eucommia ulmoides barks and evaluate their protective effects on high-glucose-stimulated human renal mesangial cells.The barks of E. ulmoides was crushed and extracted with purified water.HPD-100 macroporous resin,Silica gel,Sephadex LH-20 and Semi-preparative HPLC were used to separate compounds in the aqueous extract,and their structures were identified based on physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Six lignans were isolated and identified as caruilignan D (1),(-)-epipinoresinol (2),(+)-pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3),(-)-pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4),(+)-medioresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and (+)-medioresinol 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6).Compound 1 was isolated from E. ulmoides for the first time.The effect of isolated lignans on cell viability in high-glucose-stimulated human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) with abnormal proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay.It was found that compound 5 can inhibit cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner,indicating that compound 5 exerts protective activity on high-glucose-stimulated HRMCs.
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    Mechanism of Erzhi Pill against Alzheimer′s disease based on serum metabolomics and network pharmacology
    LIU Guo-liang, LI Li, LEI Xia, XU Hong-dan, ZHANG Ning, YAO Yuan
    NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT    2023, 35 (6): 1027-1037.   DOI: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2023.6.012
    Abstract203)      PDF(pc) (2081KB)(4)       Save
    This present investigation uses high throughput serum metabolomics and network pharmacology techniques to explore the pharmacological mechanism of Erzhi Pill in treating Alzheimer′s disease.Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups according to their body weight,with 10 in each group,namely,sham operation group,model group,positive drug group,low dose group,and medium dose combined high dose group.Rats in the model group and each administration group were given intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and bilateral intraventricular injection β amyloid protein 25-35 (Aβ25-35) to establish a rat model of Alzheimer′s disease.After the sixth week of model preparation,the medication group was given corresponding drugs for intervention every day,while the other groups were given the same volume of physiological saline (4 weeks).The spatial learning and memory abilities of rats in each group were observed using Morris water maze experiment,and the expression of tau protein in the hippocampus of rats was detected using Western blotting.Using high throughput serum metabolomics technology combined with pattern recognition methods to search for endogenous differential metabolites and related metabolic pathways;Using network pharmacology technology to explore the potential active ingredients and key targets of Erzhi Pills,further integrating metabolomics and network pharmacology technology to focus on key targets and components,and ultimately adopting molecular biology technology for targeted verification.The water maze experiment and the degree of tau protein in the hippocampus of rats proved that the model was successfully prepared.The metabolomics results showed that the metabolic profile of the model group and the sham operation group was significantly separated,and the administration group was between the sham operation group and the model group,which demonstrated that the overall metabolism of the model group rats had significant changes,and there was a trend of regression after administration of Erzhi Pill.The results of metabolomics revealed 16 biomarkers,mainly involving 10 metabolic pathways.The results of network pharmacology show that Erzhi Pill mainly contains 13 compounds including β-sitosterol,kaempferol,etc.and 11 protein components such as the toxic muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1,a direct target associated with Alzheimer′s disease.Based on the above,it can be seen that Erzhi Pill has a good intervention effect on Alzheimer′s disease rats,which may achieve the purpose of intervention through the direct regulation of quercetin on cathepsin D.
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