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    28 December 2022, Volume 34 Issue 12
    Effect of different drying methods on volatile components in Lycium barbarum fruits from Qaidam based on GC-IMS
    GAO Yi-dan, HU Na, WANG Hong-lun
    2022, 34(12):  1989-1998.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.001
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    As one of the unique Chinese medicinal materials in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,in order to compare the effects of different drying methods on the quality and volatile components of Lycium barbarum fruits from Qaidam was comparied. L. barbarum fruits samples were dried by differernt methods including natural shade,hot air,vacuum freeze and microwave drying.Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) was used to compare the changes of volatile components in the fresh  L. barbarum fruits and various dried  L. barbarum fruits after different treatments.The spectrogram differences of volatile components were compared and principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out.A total of 52 kinds of volatile organic compounds and monomers or dimers of some substances were detected from the samples,including aldehydes,olefinic aldehydes,esters,ketones and alcohols.The diagrams of difference and principal component analysis showed that the volatile organic compounds in  L. barbarum fruits have changed significantly after drying.The types and contents of volatile organic substances in  L. barbarum fruits after freeze drying are similar to those of fresh  L. barbarum fruits,but are quite different from those dried by other drying methods.The content of volatile organic compounds in the dried  L. barbarum fruits after hot air drying and microwave drying is very similar.Establishment of a method for the detection and analysis of volatile components in L. barbarum fruits by GC-IMS.The results show that compared with other drying methods,the freeze-drying method can effectively retain the volatile components in  L. barbarum fruits,so that  L. barbarum fruits maintains a higher quality.The results provide a certain reference for the subsequent quality evaluation and processing of  L. barbarum fruits.
    Comparative study on five methods for extracting volatile oil from ginger
    YAN Fei, WANG Kai-liang, ZHANG Xiao-fei, ZOU Jun-bo, JIA Yan-zhuo, LI Jia-yi, SHI Ya-jun
    2022, 34(12):  1999-2010.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.002
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    To compare the differences of five methods for extracting ginger volatile oil.Ginger volatile oil was extracted by five methods:steam distillation (SD),enzymatic hydrolysis-assisted steam distillation (EHSD),ultrasonic-assisted steam distillation (UASD),microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) and squeezing (SQ),and its chemical compositions were analyzed by GC-MS.R language platform was used for principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster heatmap analysis to compare the differences in their component characteristics.The structural differences of the obtained ginger dregs were observed by microscope.The oil yields of steam distillation,enzymatic hydrolysis-assisted steam distillation,ultrasonic-assisted steam distillation and microwave-assisted steam distillation were 0.18%,0.19%,0.21% and 0.18%,respectively.GC-MS analysis showed that the volatile oil obtained was similar in composition,59-65 compounds were identified.The oil yield of squeezing was 0.10%,three  compounds were identified,namely α-zingerene,β-phellandrene and 6-shogaol.Microscopic observation showed that the number of oil cells in per unit area of the dregs obtained by the four distillation methods was less than that of the squeezing method.The volatile components of ginger may be affected by enzyme,ultrasound and microwave,therefore,the chemical composition and relative peak area of volatile oils obtained by different extraction methods had characteristic differences.Squeezing can easily and quickly extract α-zingiberene,β-sesquiphellandrene and 6-shogaol in ginger.Our research may provide some reference for the selection of the extraction method of ginger volatile oil in practical application and the further development and utilization of ginger.
    Study on purification,structure and in vitro antioxidant activity of buckwheat peptides
    MA Meng, TAO Ting, MA Ting-jun
    2022, 34(12):  2011-2017.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.003
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    In order to investigate the main source of antioxidant activity of tartary buckwheat polypeptide crude extract,it was necessary to further isolate and purify buckwheat peptides and analyze the relationship between antioxidant activity and peptide structure by structural identification.In this study,the buckwheat polypeptide was prepared by using the waste residue of buckwheat functional extract as raw material to extract buckwheat crude protein supplemented by lactobacill plant fermentation method,and the coarse extract of buckwheat polypeptide was isolated and purified by macroporous adsorption resin,dextran gel and liquid chromatography,and the antioxidant activity was taken as the index,the components with strong antioxidant activity were screened,and the antioxidant polypeptide structure was identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that tartary buckwheat polypeptides with different purities also had different antioxidant capacity.The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging ability of T-3 components separated and purified by Sephadex G-15 dextran gel were the best,and the scavenging rates were 96% and 94%,respectively.The antioxidant activity of purified tartary buckwheat polypeptide was significantly higher than that of crude extract (P<0.05),but the antioxidant activity was not positively correlated with the purity of tartary buckwheat polypeptide.After further separation and purification of T-3 components by liquid chromatography,the component T-3-1 was obtained.Although the purity of Tartary buckwheat polypeptide reached 98%,the inhibition rate of DPPH and ABTS was no longer enhanced.The e inhibition rates were 89% and 90%,respectively.The amino acid sequences of the main antioxidant peptides were phenylalanine-proline-tyrosine(Phe-Pro-Tyr,FPY) and tyrosine-leucine-proline-phenylalanine(Tyr-Leu-Pro-Phe,YLPF).The results are expected to provide a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of tartary buckwheat polypeptides.
    In vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Rhodiola crenulata extract based on molecular docking and enzyme inhibition kinetics
    WANG Li-ping, GAO Cai-wen, FENG Hai-yue, ZENG Song-yu, CHEN Shi-en
    2022, 34(12):  2018-2025.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.004
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    The purpose of this study was to explore the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Rhodiola crenulata extract and the main active substances with inhibitory effect.An in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory system was constructed,its inhibitory activity was measured,and the type of inhibition was determined by enzyme inhibition kinetics.Then,ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE-MS) and molecular docking were used to further explore the main compounds in the extract that inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase.The results showed that the extract of R. crenulata had a good inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase,with IC50 of 1.538 mg/mL,which was a mixed reversible inhibition type of competitive and non-competitive.A total of 1 245 compounds were detected by UHPLC-QE-MS,among which fatty acids,terpenes and their derivatives,flavonoids were the three most common compounds,with 107,85 and 66 compounds,respectively.Secondly,a variety of substances such as phenols,amino acids,and sugars were identified.Molecular docking showed that 11 of the 20 compounds with relatively high content had binding to α-glucosidase.The (+)-epicatechin binding energy (-17.08 kJ/mol) was the lowest and binding activity was the best.Caffeic acid forms up to 5 hydrogen bonds,which are connected to His-515,Arg-437,Glu-432,and His-348 residues respectively.Caffeic acid,L-malic acid,quercetin and tyrosol have the same binding site Arg-437.This study provided basic research for the development of natural α-glucosidase inhibitors and the utilization of R. crenulata resources.
    Euphorbia humifusa extract ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through regulating miR-106-5p/TLR4 pathway in mice
    LIU Ming-jing, CHEN Ye-zi, ZHANG Lei, LIU Chao-qi, ZHOU Yong-qin, YUAN Cheng-fu, HE Yu-min
    2022, 34(12):  2026-2033.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.005
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    To explore the effect of Euphorbia humifusa Willd. on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS),and the molecular mechanism of its intervention.Male and female SPF grade C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a normal control group,a model group,and low and high dose groups of E. humifusa,10 mice in each group. The normal control group was not given any intervention,while both the model and treatment groups were fed high fat diet throughout the 14 days of the experiment,during which time the E. humifusa were orally administered by gavage daily to the mice of treatment groups.Starting from the 8th day,the model and treatment groups were given 2% DSS water for 5-7 days.Mice were executed at the end of the experiment,the serum triglyceride (TG) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) contents were detected for all the mice.The pathological changes of mouse liver tissue were observed by H&E staining.The miRNA targeting to TLR4 was predicted based on bioinformatics and pre-experiments.The relative expressions of miR-106-5p,Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), IL-6 and TNF-α in the liver tissue of mice were detected by RT-qPCR.The expression levels of TLR4 and IL-1β proteins in the liver of mice were analyzed by Western blot.Compared with the normal group,the serum TG and ALT of the model group were increased. H&E staining results showed significant hepatocyte steatosis and inflammatory reaction in the model liver tissues.RT-qPCR results showed that the expressions of TLR4 and inflammatory factors (IL-6,and TNF-α) were significantly increased,while miR-106-5p which targets the TLR4,was reduced in the liver tissues of model mouse(P<0.05).Western blot results further confirmed that the expression levels of TLR4 and IL-1β proteins were increased in the liver of the model group.After the intervention with E. humifusa,the serum TG and ALT were decreased (P<0.05),the relative mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in liver tissues were decreased,while the expression of miR-106-5p was increased compared with model group.Similarly,the expression levels of TLR4 and IL-1β proteins were decreased (P<0.05).The E. humifusa can effectively alleviates the inflammatory condition and fat deposition in NASH induced by high-fat diet combined with DSS,and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the miR-106-5p/TLR4 signaling pathway.
    A new shikimate derivative from Oenothera biennis L.
    LIU Juan-juan, ZHANG Jing-ke, ZENG Meng-nan, LI Meng, ZHU Deng-hui, WEI Jun-jun, ZHENG Xiao-ke, FENG Wei-sheng
    2022, 34(12):  2034-2039.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.006
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    To study the chemical constituents of Oenothera biennis L..The chemical constituents from 50% acetone extract of the O. biennis were isolated by repeated chromatograph with silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI gel CHP-20 and semi-preparative RP-HPLC.The structure of the separated chemical components was identified by modern spectroscopy identification.Ten compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of 50% acetone extract of O. biennis,and identified as dimethyl 3-lactyl shikimate (1),methyl shikimate (2),3,3′,4-O-triomethylellagic acid (3),3,3′-dimethylellagic acid (4),3,4,3′-trimethoxy flavellagic acid (5),alternariol 9-methyl ether (6),2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (7),scirpyrone H (8),dimethoxydimethylphthalide (9),clearanol C (10).Compound 1 was a new shikimate derivative and compounds 2-10 were newly isolated from the O. biennis. Compounds 2 and 3 could significantly increase the viability of BEAS-2B cells induced by TGF-β1,showing potent lung protection.
    A new shikimate derivative from Oenothera biennis L.(Supporting Information)
    LIU Juan-juan, ZHANG Jing-ke, ZENG Meng-nan, LI Meng, ZHU Deng-hui, WEI Jun-jun, ZHENG Xiao-ke, FENG Wei-sheng
    2022, 34(12):  2035-2039. 
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    Study on the separation and purification of polypeptide from Moschus and its anti-inflammatory mechanism
    YI Jing, YIN Zhu-jun, QUAN Yun-yun, CHEN Shi-long, LANG Ji-rui, LI Yong, ZHAO Jun-ning, LI Li
    2022, 34(12):  2040-2049.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.007
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    The polypeptide was extracted and purified from Moschus.In vitro cell model was used to screen polypeptide components from Moschus with anti-inflammatory activity,and to study the protective effect and mechanisms of Musk polypeptide on acute lung injury in mice.Five components (SXP1,SXP2,SXP3,SXP4,and SXP5) were extracted from Moschus by ultrasonic cell crusher and purified by ion-exchange chromatography.In LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages,SXP4 (100 μg/mL) manifested anti-inflammatory activity,which could significantly suppress the production of TNF-α and IL-1β. The SDS-PAGE results suggested that the molecule weight of polypeptide in SXP4 was most distributed within 10-26 kDa.In LPS-induced acute lung injury of the mice,SXP4 (5,15,50 mg/kg) could suppress the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum (P<0.05 or P<0.01),reduce inflammatory cell infiltration,improve the thickening of the alveolar wall,and alleviate the pathological damage in the lungs.Moreover,SXP4 could decrease IL-1β,IL-18 production and inhibit protein levels of NLRP3,ASC,and Caspase-1 in the lungs of mice with acute lung injury (P<0.01).In conclusion,polypeptide from Moschus (named SXP4) showed anti-inflammatory activity,which could alleviate pathological damage in the lungs of mice with acute lung injury that might be involved in the suppression of NLRP3/Caspase-1 mediated pyroptosis.
    Chemical constituents from the roots of Stephania tetrandra and their anti-liver fibrosis activity
    XU Jin-ye, XU Feng-qing, KONG Chui-hao, ZHAO Hong-su, WANG Ren-zhong, WU De-ling
    2022, 34(12):  2050-2055.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.008
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    The chemical constituents from roots of Stephania tetrandra and their anti-liver fibrosis activity were studied.The roots of Stephania tetrandra were extracted with EtOH,and the extractions were separated on column chromatography of silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,ODS and semi-preparative HPLC to yield 13 compounds.According to the physical and chemical properties and spectral data,13 compounds were identified as cyclanoline (1),coclaurine (2),5-hydroxymethyl-1-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (3),isosalsoline (4),thalifoline (5),northalifoline (6),2-methyl-3-hydrox ypyridine (7), (+)-lyoniresinol (8),icariside B5 (9),syringic acid (10),4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (11),4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12),p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (13).Compounds 1-13 are isolated from this plant for the first time.And compounds 3,4,6-9 have never been reported before from the genus Stephania. The compounds 1-13 were preliminarily examined for anti-liver fibrosis activity.Compounds 2,5,6,10-12 showed antiproliferative activities in LX-2 induced by TGF-β1.
    Study on secondary metabolites of Colletotrichum sp.B-152 derived from Dracaena cochinchinensis
    ZHANG Ke-tao, HUANG Zhi-pu, ZHAO Yu-ying, ZHANG Bing, XU Xiao-rong, XU Yu-xiao, ZHAO Qing, ZHANG Xiao-mei
    2022, 34(12):  2056-2062.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.009
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    Nine compounds were isolated and identified from the fermentation of Colletotrichum sp.B-152,which derived from Dracaena cochinchinensis, by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis.They are 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-phenyl-3-pentanone (1),4-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3-pentanediol (2),thymidine (3),adenosine (4),(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol(5),(4E,8E)-N-D-2′-hydroxypalmitoyl-1-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine(6),tuberosider(7), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol(8,daturic acid (9).Among which,2-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-phenyl-3-pentanone (1) was reported as natural product for the first time,compounds 2-4,6,7 and 9 were isolated from genus Colletotrichum for the first time.The antimicrobial activities of isolated compounds were determined by paper diffusion method.These 9 compounds showed inhibition abilities against more than one pathogens,compounds 7 and 8 showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities.
    Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on callus growth and saponins production of American ginseng 
    HAO Tian-tian, CHEN Yan-yang, MIAO Jia-qi, NIU Chen, LIANG Jia, XU Yong-hua
    2022, 34(12):  2063-2068.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.010
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    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different inducers on callus growth,related enzyme activities and ginsenoside content of American ginseng(Panax quinquefolium L.,AG).The changes of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) on saponin biosynthesis in callus of AG were determined by HPLC.The results showed that MeJA inhibited the growth,but SA had little effect on the growth.Both inducers could significantly activate the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,catalase (CAT) ,peroxidase (POD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in callus of AG.When the concentration of MeJA in the medium was 100 μmol/L,the content and yield of total saponins in callus re-ached the maximum,and the contents of ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rb1 and Rc were the highest.In the SA-induced sub-experimental group,when the concentration of SA was 300 μmol/L,The content and yield of total saponins in callus of AG reached the maximum,and the content of ginsenoside Rb1 was the highest.The results showed that adding appropriate concentrations of MeJA and SA inducers in the callus of AG could increase the content of ginsenosides,and MeJA had the best effect in inducing total ginsenosides,and also affected the growth of AG callus.The results indicated that the addition of exogenous inducers was beneficial to increase the content of saponin in callus of AG.
    Effect of Tujia medicine Berberidis Radix on intestinal flora in mice with ulcerative colitis
    HU Xue-li, TIAN Li, LI Hong, TU Xing, NIE Juan, YANG Bao, LIU Ke-yun, HU Ze-hua
    2022, 34(12):  2069-2076.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.011
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    This study aims to investigate Tujia medicine Berberidis Radix on intestinal flora of mice with ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate and provide the scientific basis for its development and utilization.c57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal group,model group,mesalazine group,and low-,medium-,and high-dose Berberidis Radix groups.Except for the normal group, 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate drinking water was given to each group for seven days.At the same time,the administration group was gavaged with the mesalazine group and Berberidis Radix group for ten days.Body weight changes and disease activity index were measured.Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes in colon tissue.The composition and diversity of the intestinal flora were detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.The results demonstrated that Berberidis Radix could significantly decrease disease activity index score(P<0.05).Berberidis Radix improved species richness and diversity in the intestinal flora of mice with ulcerative colitis and adjusted the abundance of the dysregulated bacteria closer to that of the normal group.This study reveals that regulating the diversity of intestinal flora and the structure of flora may be one of the essential ways for Berberidis Radix to intervene in ulcerative colitis and provides a theoretical basis for the clinical use of Berberidis Radix through the perspective of intestinal flora.
    Structural identificatin and in vitro antitumor activity of wild Morchella esculenta polysaccharide from Xiaojin County of Sichuan Province
    ZHOU Li-qian, HUANG Yao, LU Yan, YE Zi-yu, LIU Xin-lan, DING Xiang, HOU Yi-ling
    2022, 34(12):  2077-2088.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.012
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    In this study,Morchella esculenta polysaccharide(ME-P) were extracted by hot water extraction from wild M. esculenta in Xiaojin County,Sichuan Province.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to identify the structure of ME-P.CCK-8 method was used to detect the drug toxicity of ME-P and to explore the antitumor activity of ME-P in vitro.The results showed that ME-P contained pyranose ring,and the monosaccharides were composed of mannose,glucose and galactose with a ratio of 4∶4∶1.The polysaccharides are characterized by a novel structure,which is characterized by the alternating linkage of 1,2,3,4,6-D-mannose and 2,3,4,6-D-mannose as the main chain,1,6-D-glucose and 1,2,6-D-galactose as the branch chain,and the connection of 4-D-glucose and 1,2,6-D-galactose as a repeating unit of terminal monosaccharide.ME-P is non-toxic to macrophages (RAW 264.7) and has a very significant effect (P<0.01) on proliferation.The proliferation rate of RAW 264.7 can be as high as 79.5% at a mass concentration of 1.25 μg/mL.At the same time,it had inhibitory effect on mouse colon cancer cells (CT26.WT) and gastric cancer cells (MFC),and the inhibition effect was better at low concentration.When ME-P was 1.25 μg/mL,the inhibition rates of ME-P on CT26.WT and MFC were 28.20% and 34.23%,respectively.This study shows that M. esculenta polysaccharides (ME-P) in Xiaojin County,Sichuan Province is a novel polysaccharide composed of mannose,glucose and galactose,which is non-toxic and has significant inhibitory effect on tumor cells.The results provide a scientific basis for the development and application of Morchella polysaccharides.
    Study on the degradation of avermectin by two microbial strains
    LUO Xiao-fang, XU Kai-hui, WANG Ying-fei, WANG WAN-Ying, XU-Jin, ZHANG Yu-han, CHEN Li-hua
    2022, 34(12):  2089-2097.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.013
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    The abuse of antibiotics has a serious impact on the environment.It is very important to find a method to deal with the residual antibiotics in the environment.In this paper,the single factor method and multi factor method were used to test the degradation of avermectin by Bacillus subtilis and Shigella.The two strains showed good degradation of avermectin.Then,the response surface analysis of the experimental results was carried out by using box Behnken design software,and then the degradation conditions of avermectin were optimized.The optimum conditions for abamectin degradation by Bacillus subtiliswere temperature 35.43 ℃,sample loading 57.56 mL,bacterial concentration 3.85%,and the theoretical maximum degradation rate was 59.15%;The optimum conditions for the degradation of avermectin by Shigella were temperature 30.45 ℃,sample loading 60.24 mL and bacterial concentration 3.56%.At this time,the theoretical maximum degradation rate was 65.34%.The results showed that Bacillus subtilis and Shigella were excellent strains for abamectin degradation,and the determination coefficients of response surface model were more than 90%.Therefore,the model can be used to analyze the degradation effect of abamectin by microbial strains,and provide a theoretical basis for the degradation of abamectin by microbial strains in practice.
    Enzymatic modification and functional quality evaluation of Polygonatum odoratum whole powder
    LI Hui-min, ZHANG Fang-ming, XU Pan, CAO Yu-xin, ZHENG Tao, ZHAO Li-ping, ZHENG Hui, YANG Yong
    2022, 34(12):  2098-2109.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.014
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    The enzymatic modification was used to improve the application characteristics and functional quality of Polygonatum odoratum whole powder (PWP).The application characteristics and functional quality were evaluated by comparing the quality characteristics of PWP prepared by enzymatic modifying,vacuum freeze-drying,traditional processing and vacuum microwave drying.PWP was modified by compound enzymes consisting of pectinase,cellulase and papain,and the process parameters of enzymatic modification were studied and optimized byresponse surface method,and physical properties (dispersity and colour) and chemical index (total polysaccharides and flavonoids content) as evaluation indexes.In vitro antioxidant capacity (Fe3+ reducing ability,DPPH· scavenging ability and ·OH scavenging ability) and in vitro hypoglycemic ability (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition) were applied to evaluate the the functional activities of PWP.The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of PWP were as follows:3% enzyme dosage,80 min enzymatic hydrolysis time,40 ℃ temperature,pH 5.5.The Fe3+ reducing ability and ·OH scavenging ability of PWP were enhanced,and the inhibitory ability of α-amylase was also enhanced.The antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects of PWP were improved by enzymatic modification.The performance of compound enzymatic modification can effectively improve the application characteristics and functional quality,and enhance the health function value of PWP.
    Study on the protective effect of Codonopsis Radix on oxidative damage based on network pharmacology
    LIAO Jiang-min, ZHU Tong, YANG Xue-feng, LENG Chong-jiao, YANG Jun-xuan
    2022, 34(12):  2110-2118.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.015
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    The main mechanism of antioxidation of 10 chemical components in Codonopsis Radix was predicted by network pharmacology method;By constructing an in vitro cell oxidative damage model,To verify the protective effect of the representative active ingredients of Codonopsis Radix screened from network pharmacology on the model.All target proteins of 10 components were obtained through PubMed database and Swiss target prediction website;The related target proteins of oxidative stress were searched by "CTD" database;Using STRING to build a common target interaction network (PPI);Go enrichment analysis of intersection target proteins was carried out through Matescape database.RAW 264.7 cells were injured by H2O2.The cells were divided into blank group,H2O2 group,Lobetyolin group,L-tryptophan group and syringin group.Using CCK8 method,Kit method,real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method and Western blot method were used to examine the relevant indicators.214 targets were predicted from 10 monomers targets;881 targets related to oxidative stress were retrieved;20 items involving biological processes,14 molecular functions and 7 cell components were found by Go enrichment analysis.Compared Compared with H2O2 group,the cell viability of drug group was enhanced (P<0.05),the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the mRNA expression level of related genes were significantly different,and the expression of related proteins were also significantly different.Network pharmacology research and cell experiment show that the antioxidant stress of active components of Codonopsis Radix can play a role through antioxidant enzymes and Keap1-Nrf2 pathway.
    Study on the mechanism of Huangqisan in treating Alzheimer′s disease based on network pharmacology and experimental verification
    ZHANG Yun-hui , YANG Meng-lin, ZHOU Xiao-qing, WU Da-hua, LIU Xia, LI Xiang
    2022, 34(12):  2119-2129.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.016
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    To study the mechanism of Huangqisan in treating Alzheimer′s disease(AD) by network pharmacology.To search the active ingredients and corresponding targets of Huangqisan through the TCMSP databases,Then obtained the targets of AD through the DisGeNET and GeneCards database.Constructed protein interaction network map by String online database.At the same time GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of key targets were carried out by using R language.Induction of PC12 cell injury by adopted Aβ25-35 as AD cell model.Detection of cell viability by MTT assay.Observation of cell morphology and synaptic growth by microscope.Observation of Autophagosomes in PC12 cells by transmission electron microscopy.Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) content by using Kits.Finally,ELISA and Western blot were used to verify the main biological processes and signaling pathways predicted by network pharmacology.A total of 44 active ingredients of Huangqisan were screened,134 corresponding targets,102 targets related to Alzheimer′s disease.The top 20 KEGG related signaling pathways and GO analysis of the top 20 biological processes.Cell experiments proved that Huangqisan effectively increased the survival rate and synaptic length of PC12 cells,effectively promoted Aβ25-35 induced PC12 cells autophagosome wrapped damaged mitochondria,reduced the content of inflammatory factors IL-1β,IL-18,TNF-α,reduced ROS level,increased LC3 II/I ratio,up-regulated PINK1,parkin,BDNF protein expression,down-regulated p62,NLRP3 protein expression.Huangqisan had a therapeutic effect on AD by activated PINK1/parkin pathway to promoted mitophagy and reduced ROS levels,thereby inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and improved synaptic plasticity.
    Research progress on chemical constituents,pharmacological mechanism,quality control and processing of Terminalia chebula Retz.
    LI Hua-shuang, LIU Yong-jian, YANG Hong-liu, LIU Yong-gang
    2022, 34(12):  2130-2141.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.017
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    Based on domestic and foreign literatures in recent years,this paper systematically gave a review on the advance of studies for chemical composition,pharmacological action and mechanism,quality control and processing of T. chebula.The main chemical components of T. chebula include tannins,phenolic acids and triterpenoids.Modern pharmacological studies have shown that T. chebula extract has many pharmacological activities,such as anti-microbial,detoxification,anti-cancer,anti-oxidation,protecting the brain,liver and gastrointestinal mucosa,detoxify aconite.In this paper,the chemical composition,pharmacological action and mechanism,quality standard,processing research and its own safety of T. chebula are systematically described,providing theoretical basis for scientific and rational use of T. chebula and further development and application of T. chebula.
    Research progress on synthesis and activity of andrographolide derivatives
    LIU Tian-fu, DU Xiao-nian, ZHANG Yi-fu, ZHANG Jian
    2022, 34(12):  2142-2161.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.12.018
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    In recent years,many research groups have carried out a large number of experimental studies based on andrographolide as a lead compound in the development of antitumor,anti-inflammatory,antibacterial and antiviral drugs.In order to provide some guidance for the further research and development of new drugs based on andrographolide,this paper systematically summarizes the research progress in the synthesis and activity of andrographolide derivatives in recent years and reveals their structure-activity relationship.