28 May 2022, Volume 34 Issue 5
Chemical composition,antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of volatile oil from Turpiniae Folium
LIU Zhao, LI Li, TANG Yang-qiannan, LIN Li-mei, XIA Bo-hou
2022, 34(5):  723-738.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.001
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Turpiniae Folium is widely used as a functional food or medicine in China.However,little investigations are performed on the chemical composition and biological activity of its volatile oil.In this work,Turpiniae Folium oil extracts (Supercritical extraction) were systematically characterized for the first time.The low polar substances were identified by GC-MS (methyl esterification and non-methylesterification),and LC-MS method was applied to conduct analysis of the intermediate polar substances.Also,the anti-oxidant (DPPH and ABTS method) and anti-inflammatory (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model) activity of the oil from Turpiniae Folium were performed.80 chemical components were identified by GC-MS (38 for non-methyl esterification and 42 for methyl esterification,respectively),most of which were linoleic acid,γ-sitosterol,squalene,2,2′-methylenebis-(4-methyl -6-tert-butylphenol),trans-9-octadecenoic acid,palmitic acid and other substances.In the positive and negative ion mode of LC-MS,a total of 256 compounds were identified,most of which were terpenes,phenylpropanoids,phenols,flavonoids,alkaloids,coumarins and their derivatives,fatty acyls,semi-terpenoids,fatty acids and other compounds.Moreover,the volatile oil from Turpiniae Folium had good ability to resist DPPH and ABTS free radicals,and could significantly inhibit the release of NO and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner.Generally,these results proved the anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,and immunoregulatory effects of the volatile oil from Turpiniae Folium,thus providing a reference for the application of PVO as a food or drug.
Preparation,structure characterization and immunoregulatory activity of Cerasus humilis polysaccharide
FENG Luo-luo, WANG Rui, DONG Zhao-bin, LIAO Yu-mei, WANG Guo-liang, ZHANG Run-guang, ZHANG You-lin
2022, 34(5):  739-749.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.002
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Cerasus humilis is rich in calcium,rich in nutrition,and has immune function.Research on the preparation,structure and immunoregulatory activity of C. humilis polysaccharide (CHP) can provide basis for further processing of C. humilis.In this paper,the CHP was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method using C. humilis as raw material,and the extraction process was optimized by response surface methodology.The CHP was purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography column and G-100 Sephadex gel column.The structure of CHP was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography,gel permeation chromatography and infrared spectroscopy,and the immunoregulatory activity of CHP was determined.The results showed that the optimal extraction process conditions of CHP were as follows:extraction temperature 79 ℃,extraction time 2 h,liquid-solid ratio 16∶1(mL/g).Under these conditions,the polysaccharide yield of dried C. humilis powder was (32.18±0.08)%.There were CHPP-1 and CHPP-2 in the purified C. humilis polysaccharide.The content of CHPP-1 and CHPP-2 were 99.16% and 99.33%,respectively.The monosaccharide composition and molar ratio of CHPP-1 were arabinose∶galacturonic acid∶glucose =51.4∶20.29∶17.36,molecular weight was 47.26 kDa.The monosaccharide composition and molar ratio of CHPP-2 were arabinose∶galacturonic acid∶glucose =41.81∶28.24∶11.68,molecular weight was 22.94 kDa.Both components were pyranoid ring polysaccharides.CHPP-2 can significantly enhance the proliferation of macrophages and effectively stimulate the release of NO,TNF-α,IL-6 and IFN-β.The CHP is rich in content and has strong immunomodulatory activity.
Isorhynchophylline alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating ERK/p27Kip1 signaling pathway in mice
CHEN Xiao, LI Ze-peng, HE Xiao-wei, LI Xian-wei
2022, 34(5):  750-760.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.003
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To explore the effect and mechanism of isorhynchophylline (IRN) on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice based on extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2),p27Kip1 signaling pathway.Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group,bleomycin (BLM) group,IRN low and high (10 and 20 mg/kg) groups,twelve mice in each group.The pulmonary fibrosis (PF) model was induced by intratracheal injection of BLM (5 000 U/kg).IRN were administered by intragastric every day after BLM treatment for three weeks.HE and Masson staining were used to observe the pathological changes and collagen deposition in lung tissue.The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry.Primary mouse lung fibroblasts cultured in vitro,cells were divided into control group,transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) group,and IRN (5,10 and 20 μmol/L) groups.Cell proliferation was measured by EdU marking and flow cytometry.The ability of cell migration was applied by Transwell assays.The mRNA levels of TGF-β1,collagen I and α-SMA were detected by RT-qPCR in lung tissue and cells.The proteins levels of TGF-β1,collagen I,α-SMA,p-ERK1/2,p27Kip1,CDK2 and Cyclin E1 were detected by Western blot in lung tissue and cells.In vivo,compared with BLM group,IRN (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced damaged lung structures,infiltrated inflammatory cells and accumulated areas of collagen deposition.Moreover,IRN reduced the mRNA and proteins expression of TGF-β1,collagen I and TGF-β1 in the lung tissues.Meanwhile,IRN decreased the level of ERR1/2 phosphorylation,up-regulation expression of p27Kip1 and down-regulation expression of CDK2 and Cyclin E1 in the lung tissues.In vitro,compared with TGF-β1 group,IRN (5,10 and 20 μmol/L) treatment significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of pulmonary fibroblasts,and obviously decreased the mRNA and proteins expression of collagen I and α-SMA induced by TGF-β1.Similarly,IRN (5,10 and 20 μmol/L) treatment reduced the level of ERR1/2 phosphorylation,up-regulation expression of p27Kip1 and down-regulation expression of CDK2 and Cyclin E1 induced by TGF-β1.These results demonstrated that IRN could suppress lung fibroblast proliferation,migration and differentiation to myofibroblasts and alleviate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice,possibly through suppressing the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and up-regulating p27Kip1 expression.
Screening of new antiviral compounds from Chinese natural products library based on single glycoprotein of ebolavirus
SHI Hai-long, HUANG Yue, CHENG Yi, WANG Yue-wen, FENG Xue-song, CHAO Xu
2022, 34(5):  761-771.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.004
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In this study,ebolavirus single glycoprotein of ebolavirus (EBOV-sGP) was used as the target,using diverse virtual screening technologies,such as drug-like evaluation,molecular docking,ADME prediction,binding free energy calculation,molecular dynamics simulation,etc.,in order to mine potential antiviral natural products from the database of traditional Chinese medicine.Taking toremifene as a positive control,four lead compounds,MOL006834,MOL000174,MOL002192,and MOL012524 with good drug-like properties were finally sorted.Their affinity values and interaction groups with EBOV-sGP are close to or similar to toremifene.The research results can promote the work of extracting,designing and experimentally synthesizing anti-ebolavirus compounds from natural products library of traditional Chinese medicine.
Screening of potential antibacterial Chinese herbal medicines based on quorum sensing system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
GAO Lei, TONG Hao-wen, LIANG Yue-hui, ZHAO Hong-yi, LIU Hai-bo, LIU Xu
2022, 34(5):  772-779.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.005
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa promotes the expression of a variety of virulence factors and develops drug resistance with the help of the quorum sensing system in vivo,which has become a major problem in the treatment of clinical infections,and it is extremely urgent to find new antibacterial drugs.2 733 common Chinese herbal medicines in Guangxi were selected in this work,and the active constituent library was established.After that,five important drug-resistant relative proteins in the quorum sensing were selected,and then they were docked with molecules,excepting to screen Chinese herbal medicine.Finally,the results showed that 17 ligands could be screened and 7 corresponding Chinese herbs could be applied as the potential quorum sensing inhibitors:Galla Chinensis,Rhizoma et Radix Boehmeriae,Radix Bauhiniae Purpureae,Herba Polygoni Chinensis,Herba Phyllanthi Urinarise,Folium Glyptostrobi Pensilis,Herba Melastomatis Polyanthi,respectively.The effectiveness of the selected traditional Chinese medicine was proved by the antimicrobial test of drug-resistant strains.
Analysis of blood components of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium in different years based on UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
WU Bei, SHEN Meng-yuan, WANG Fu, CHEN Hong-ping, LIU You-ping, CHEN Lin
2022, 34(5):  780-789.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.006
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To analyze and identify the blood components of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium of different aging time by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS).UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS technology and Compound Discover 3.0 software were used for analysis.The spectrum differences of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium extract,administered serum,and blank serum were compared,and molecular weight,secondary fragment information,reference literature,and reference substance information were combined to find out the prototype components and metabolites absorbed into the blood after oral administration of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium liquid.34,24 and 15 components were identified in the blood of 2,4 and 8-year-old Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium,and the content of flavonoids in the blood of 2-year-old Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was higher than that of 4 and 8-year-old Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium.The UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS can provide a rapid,accurate and comprehensive analysis of the migrating components in blood after the administration of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium,which can provide a reference for the later research on the pattern of the substance basis of the medicinal effects of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium and provide new ideas for the study of the scientific connotation of the older the better of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium.
Determination of volatile components in different periods and parts of Citrus aurantium L. based on HS-SPME-GC-MS
ZHANG Rui-ying, CHENG Feng, ZHENG Ya-jie, CHEN Peng, LU Ying, YUAN Jian-hua, LI Xian-xin, TANG Qi
2022, 34(5):  790-799.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.007
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This research mainly focus on the determination of the volatile components in different periods of Citrus aurantium L. fruit and carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis,which can help the change trend pursue of the main volatile components.The key period was chosen to detect and verfy the volatile components in different parts of C. aurantium.The volatile components in C. aurantium samples were determined by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS).The volatile components were identified by comparing standard samples,NIST database and literature,and the relative contents of each component were determined and compared by peak area normalization method.A total of 69 components were preliminarily identified in C. aurantium fruit,the D-limonene,γ-terpinene and linalool were determined by comparing the standard solution,and the total contents of D-limonene,γ-terpinene and linalool were relatively high in June 17 (8.03%) and July 1 samples (33.95%).Samples from different parts of C. aurantium on July 1 were selected for further analysis,and a total of 64 different compounds were identified,and the composition of volatile components varied greatly among different parts.Among them,34 species were identified in the root part,the main components were elemol (38.24%) and trans-α-mandarin (23.85%),and 30 species in the stem were identified.the main components are elemol (23.98%),thymol (17.29%),trans-α-mandarin (13.74%),linalool (8.92%),etc.41 kinds of leaf parts were identified,and the main components were linalool (24.51%),thymol (23.49%) and elemol (10.35%).The relative content of D-limonene and other three compounds increased in the beginning and then decreased gradually during the growing period.The stems and leaves of C. aurantium are rich in volatile components,and the relative content of monoterpenes such as linalool are relatively high.This experiment provides data and technical reference for the comprehensive utilization of volatile components and non-medicinal parts of C. aurantium.
Paclitaxel content in mycorrhizal of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and isolation purification and species identification of its fungal 
PENG Feng-zhen, DU Ya-tian , ZHOU Chun-chang, GONG Xue-yuan
2022, 34(5):  800-809.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.008
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In this article,HPLC,tissue culture,morphological observation and biological analysis of fungal ribosomal transcription spacer (rDNA-ITS) sequence were used to research on the paclitaxel content in the mycorrhizal tissue aratomy each parts,stem callus of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and the stem callus after interaction with mycorrhizal fungi,and the isolation,purification and species identification of mycorrhizal fungi group.The results showed that the paclitaxel content in the mycorrhizal primordial root tissue of T. chinensis var. mairei was 0.645 mg/g higher than that of fibrous root,which was one order of magnitude higher than that of other organ tissues,and the interaction between stem callus and mycorrhizal fungi of T. chinensis var. mairei  could increase the content of paclitaxel.26 strains of mycorrhizal fungi that were isolated and purified from the mycorrhizal,belonging to three phyla,six classes,nine orders, 11 families and 14 genera, including  AspergillusTrichodermaFusariumPenicilliumCylindrodendrumCylindrocladiellaClonostachys,Xylaria,Cladosporium,Corynespora,Paraboeremia,Pezicula, Colletotrichum and Bjerkandera.The first two genera are the dominant genera.The results showed that there were species diversity of the mycorrhizal fungi in the mycorrhizal of T. chinensis var. mairei ,and it was found that there were great differences between the species diversity of the mycorrhizal fungi in the mycorrhizal of T. chinensis var. mairei  and the species diversity of the endophytic fungi in the other organs and tissues as its roots,bark,phloem,wood and leaves,and indicating that the symbiotic interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and non corked roots of T. chinensis var. mairei  is the biological basis for its high paclitaxel accumulation.This paper provides a basis for the research on the correlation between its higher paclitaxel content and mycorrhizal fungi.

Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Ficus tikoua Bur. and their antioxidant activity
HE Zhi-yun, SHI Song-yun, WEI Xue-jiao, LIU Cheng-xiong, CHEN Jian-feng, ZOU Kun, CHENG Fan
2022, 34(5):  810-817.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.009
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To study the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of Ficus tikoua,a folk medicine of Tujia nationality.Its ethanol extract was separated and purified using silica gel column chromatography,gel column chromatography,macroporous resin column chromatography combined with semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography and other methods.The structure of the compounds was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,mass spectrometry and other methods,and seventeen compounds were separated.These compounds were identified as alpinumisoflavone (1),(+)-catechin (2),nodakenin (3),psoralen (4),bergapten (5),(+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6),(+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (7),(-)-isolariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8),ssioriside (9),huazhongilexin (10),(+)-isolariciresinol (11),(7R,8S)-3,5′-dimethoxy-4′,7-epoxy-8,3′-neolignane-5,9,9′-triol (12),6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid (13),ethy-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (14),bluemenol A (15),3,3′,4,4′-tetrahydroxy diphenyl (16),ethyl chlorogenate (17).Compounds 1-4,6-17 were isolated from this plant for the first time.Three indicators of DPPH radical scavenging rate,total antioxidant capacity,and superoxide anion scavenging capacity were used to determine the antioxidant activity of 17 compounds.The results show that lignans 9,10,and polyphenols 13,14,16 have significant DPPH free radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant ability,and their antioxidant activity is equivalent to that of ascorbic acid at the same concentration.
Study on chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
LIAO Huai-yu, HAN Jia-ying, HAN Hong-yuan, LIU Wen-bo, CHANG Xia, YANG Jing, ZHANG Hai-yan, ZHAO Tian-zeng
2022, 34(5):  818-823.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.010
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For the first time,the chemical components of national geographical indication product Zingiber officinale Roscoe from Boai County,were systematically separated,so as to provide a basis for its material basis research,development and utilization.Its ethyl acetate fraction in 70% ethanol extract was repeatedly chromatographied on Silica gel column,ODS column and semi preparative HPLC to give compounds 1-12.By using of NMR analysis as well as the literatures,the 12 compounds were identified as (-)-muurola-4,11-diene (1),dibutyl phthalate (2),(2Z)-neral acetal-[6]-gingerdiol (3),6-gingerol (4),6-shogoal (5),8-shogoal (6),10-shogoal (7),10-gingerol (8),6-paradol (9),dihydroferulic acid ethyl ester (10),(3R,5S)-3,5-diacetoxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)decane (11),p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (12).Among which,compounds 1,2,10 and 12 were firstly isolated from the plant of Zingiber genus,and compounds 1-4 and 6-12 were firstly isolated from Zingiber officinale Roscoe.The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1,3,6,7,9 and 11 were screened.The result showed that compounds 3,6,9 and 11 had obvious inhibitory effect on the NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte macrophages.
Study on the differential changes of primary and secondary metabolites between green and ripe Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa fruits based on principal component analysis
YANG Xing-jing, LIU Yan-ru , TANG Zhi-shu , SONG Zhong-xing, CHANG Bai-jin, ZHAO Yan-ting, ZHAO Meng-li
2022, 34(5):  824-835.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.011
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In order to characterize the component differentiation from unripe and ripe Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa,the approach of mass spectrometric technology was adopted to make the coupled chemometric analysis in this experiment.Firstly,the ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology was utilized to identify the main components from the unripe and ripe fruits.In addition,32 of the primary and secondary metabolites from the two forms of fruits were characterized,and they were classified into 5 kinds of structures.Next,primary metabolites and secondary metabolites from these two forms of fruits were clustered and their varied components were derived via the principal component analysis (PCA).According to PCA analysis,the samples were divided into two categories and 10 of components were selected as the candidate variables to differentia those two forms of fruits.Then,the candidate components from the primary metabolites to secondary metabolites were enriched in their metabolite pathways and biosynthetic pathways via KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis.At the same time,the candidate components were determined by a mass spectrometry multiple reaction detection (MRM) based methodology.With a good linear relationship from 0.002 3 to 800.00 μg/mL (r<0.99),the average recoveries were 96.38%-104.15% with the RSDs of 1.16%-2.46% (n=6).According to the established methodology,the effects related components from two growing periods of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa were oleanolic acid and jujuboside B,which involved in triterpenoids pathways;the flavor-related components were catechin and epicatechin,which involved in flavonoids pathways.
Mechanism of improving learning and memory in Alzheimer’s disease model rats by Angelica volatile oil
WANG Hu-ping
2022, 34(5):  836-841.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.012
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This study aims to explore the effect and mechanism of Angelica volatile oil on learning and memory in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model rats.The rats were divided into 6 groups:sham operation group,model group,positive group and low,medium and high dose groups of Angelica volatile oil.Brain stereotactic injection of Aβ25-35 was used to establish AD rat model and the drugs were administered by gavage.The learning and memory ability of rats was examined by Morris water maze.Serum acetylcholine (ACh),activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and β-amyloid precursor protein(APP),amyloid β-protein 1-42 (Aβ1-42) in hippocampus were detected by ELISA.The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured by colorimetry.The results showed that Angelica volatile oil could improve the learning and memory ability of AD model rats,increase the activities of Ach,chat and SOD (P < 0.05),and reduce serum AChE,the level of MDA and content of hippocampus APP and Aβ1-42(P < 0.05).The results show that Angelica volatile oil can effectively improve the learning and memory ability of AD model rats and has preventive and therapeutic effect on AD,which may be related to the regulation of cholinergic neurotransmitter,free radical oxidation and Aβ metabolism.
Study on the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on MPTP-induced neuronal injury and behavioral impairment in mice
GENG Yi-juan, SUN Meng-zhen, ZHAO Jin-dong, SONG Jing-feng, HU Wei-yan
2022, 34(5):  842-847.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.013
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To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of ginsenoside Rb1 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury and behavioral abnormalities in mice.In vitro isolated and cultured mouse dopaminergic neurons were treated with MPTP (10 μmol/L) and different doses of Rb1 (10,20,40 μmol/L),and neuronal morphology was observed.A Parkinson's model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP (30 mg/kg) into C57B/L6 mice,and different doses of Rb1 (10,20,40 mg/kg) were given by gavage,and mice were subjected to behavioral tests using open field test and rod climbing test;Western blot was used to detect striatal TH,CaMKII,FP1 and Bcl-2 expression.The results showed that different doses of ginsenoside Rb1 significantly improved MPTP-induced neuronal injury compared with control group.Ginsenoside Rb1 treatment significantly improved the behavioral abnormalities in MPTP-induced PD model mice.Ginsenoside Rb1 significantly upregulated the reduction of TH and Bcl-2 caused by MPTP,and had no significant effect on the reduction of CaMKII and FP1 expression.Ginsenoside Rb1 had significant ameliorative effects on MPTP-induced neuronal injury and behavioral abnormalities in mice,and the mechanism may be related to the reversal of TH and Bcl-2 expression.
Study on mechanism of aristolochic acid I induced acute kidney injury 
WANG Fan, WANG Jing, HUANG Kai, PENG Yuan, LIU Cheng-hai, TAO Yan-yan
2022, 34(5):  848-855.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.014
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In this study,transcriptomics analysis of aristolochic acid I (AAI) induced acute kidney injury was carried out to explore the molecular mechanism of AAI nephrotoxicity.Fifteen male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group (n=6) and model group (n=9).The mice in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg AAI once a day for consecutive 5 days and sacrificed on the 6th day.Serum and renal tissue were collected for later detection,Scr and BUN values were detected,and HE staining of renal tissue was performed to observe pathological changes.High-throughput transcriptome sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from kidney tissue samples,which randomly selected from each group.Fold change ≥ 2.0 as well as P-value < 0.01 were defined as differentially expressed genes,which screened separately. Meanwhile, functional analysis was performed using GO and KEGG databases.The top 5 genes with the most obvious difference multiple changes between the two groups were selected for qRT-PCR verification.Compared with the normal group,Scr and BUN of the model group were significantly increased,HE staining showed that the kidney tissue in normal group had a normal structure,and the glomeruli,tubules,interstitium were not obviously changed.While in model group,the kidney tissue turned out globular edema,glomerular pyknosis,and loss of proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells.Through high-throughput transcriptome sequencing,a total of 4 975 differential mRNAs were obtained,of which 2 511 were up-regulated genes and 2 464 were down-regulated genes.Cluster analysis identified Kap,Spp1,Aldh1a2,Serpine1,Tnc as the top 5 differentially expressed genes.GO and KEGG enrichment analysis found that these differential genes were mainly significantly enriched in GO categories related to small molecule metabolism,extracellular matrix tissue,immune response involving neutrophils,granular cavity and cytoplasmic vesicle cavity.It is also significantly enriched in pathways such as inflammatory signaling,peroxidation,and glucose metabolism.qRT-PCR indicated that the expression of Kap decreased,while the expression of Spp1,Aldh1a2,Serpine1 and Tnc increased in model group,which were consistent with the transcriptome results.The results suggest that AAI has obvious nephrotoxicity,and its toxic mechanism may be related to inflammatory response,oxidative stress,glucose metabolism and other pathways.
Rapid detection of authenticity and adulteration of bear bile powder by FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics
YUAN Ming-hao, ZHOU Tao, ZHONG Wen-xiao, ZHOU Qiang, LEI Ke-lu, ZENG Da-fu, LI Jian-gang, GUO Li
2022, 34(5):  856-863.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.015
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To establish a rapid quality evaluation method of bear bile powder,infrared spectroscopy was introduced to distinguish bear bile powder from its counterfeits and adulterants.In addition,the adulterated proportion was predicted by infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.Infrared spectra of 94 batches of bear bile powder,70 batches of its counterfeits (pig bile powder,cow bile powder,goat bile powder,rabbit bile powder,chicken bile powder,duck bile powder and goose bile powder) and 180 batches of its adulterants (bear bile powder adulterated with pig bile powder,bear bile powder adulterated with cow bile powder) were collected.Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to establish the qualitative correction models of bear bile powder,its counterfeits and adulterants.Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to establish the quantitative correction models of adulterated proportions of different kinds of adulterants.The accuracy of the qualitative correction model for bear bile powder,its counterfeits and adulterants was 99.64% (calibration set) and 95.65% (verification set),respectively.According to further discriminant analysis,the category of the counterfeit and adulterated bear bile powder could be identified with an accuracy greater than 95%.In the two quantitative correction models,the correlation coefficients of the validation set (R2V) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.987 4,2.630 0% (bear bile powder adulterated with pig bile powder) and 0.982 6,3.188 7% (bear bile powder adulterated with cow bile powder),respectively.The three qualitative models and two quantitative models all showed excellent predictive ability.The method of infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics established in this study can realize the rapid identification of bear bile powder,its counterfeits and adulterants as well as the determination of adulterated proportion.It also provides a meaningful reference for quality control and evaluation of bear bile powder.
Anti-HBV Q-Marker prediction analysis of Artemisia rupestris L. based on network pharmacology and fingerprint
MAO Yan, LIU Rong-chang, DING Man, HE Jin-hua
2022, 34(5):  864-873.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.016
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To predict and analyze potential anti-hepatitis B virus quality marker (Q-Marker) of Artemisia rupestris L. based on network pharmacology and fingerprint.Network pharmacology was used to construct a “compound-target-pathway” network to screen and analyze the relevant targets and pathways of A. rupestris.The fingerprints of 18 batches of A. rupestris were established by using HPLC method.OPLS-DA was used to screen out the main components that cause differences between groups,comprehensive prediction Q-Marker of  A. rupestris.Fifteen potential active ingredients were obtained by network pharmacological analysis.Fingerprints of 18 batches of  A. rupestris were established,8 common peaks (chlorogenic acid,rutinum,buddleoside,luteolin,rupestonic acid,apigenin,casticin,absinthin) were identified by standard substance.Finally,based on the concept of Q-Marker and multiple considerations,artemisinic acid,buddleoside,apigenin,and luteolin can be preliminarily potential Q-Markers of  A. rupestris. The Q-Marker predictive analysis of  A. rupestris provides a reference for the quality evaluation of medicinal materials and lays the foundation for clarifying the mechanism of action of its medicinal material basis.
Study on mechanisms of Xiaochaihu Decoction in treating systemic lupus erythematosus and glomerulonephritis with same-link method based on “immune-inflammation”
CHANG Meng-li, GUO Fei-fei, TANG Shi-huan, YANG Hong-jun
2022, 34(5):  874-886.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.017
Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (3880KB) ( 1 )  
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This paper takes autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus and glomerulonephritis as an example,for the purpose of analyzing the mechanism of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating different diseases with same method from an “immune-inflammation” point of view.The differential genes about SLE and GN were obtained from GEO database,then the protein-protein interaction network map was constructed by String database and the core targets were obtained based on Cytoscape 3.8.0,then the core target data were uploaded to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) efficacy prediction platform for the purpose of constructing the disease network.The disturbance scores of disease network of marketed western medicine for clinical treatment of SLE and GN and Xiaochaihu Decoction was compared based on the TCM efficacy prediction platform and z-Score model.GO analysis and KEGG analysis were performed on the targets of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating SLE,GN,and targets which is shared between them by using the ClueGo in Cytoscape 3.8.0.The 95 core targets about SLE and 112 core targets about GN,82 targets of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating SLE,77 targets of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating GN and 38 core targets which is shared between Xiaochaihu Decoction treating SLE and GN were obtained according to the above conditions.According the GO and KEGG analysis,the mechanism of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating different diseases with same method may be achieved by participating in type I interferon signaling pathway,negative regulation of viral processes,response to interferon-gamma,regulation of B cell proliferation and other immune inflammation-related biological processes and mediating cytosolic DNA sensing pathway,NOD-like receptor signaling pathway,hepatitis C and other signaling pathways.It is concluded that Xiaochaihu Decoction can treat SLE and GN through pathways related to immune process and inflammatory response,a reference for further study of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating SLE and GN is provided from this article,and can be helpful in accurately locate the disease process of Xiaochaihu Decoction treating different diseases with same method.
Research advance in separation and analysis of oligosaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine
LIU Yan-yan, LIU Jian-fei, XING Lian-xi, DI Duo-long
2022, 34(5):  887-898.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.018
Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (1185KB) ( 0 )  
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The research of oligosaccharides chains and function are important directions of glycobiology research in the future,which will bring new hope to the research and treatment of human diseases.With deep research on carbohydrates,oligosaccharide have attracted extensive attention of scholars at home and abroad in recent years because of their various pharmacological activities.The structure of oligosaccharide is complex and diverse influenced by linkage site,sugar ring structure and branch,which bring great challenges to its extraction,purification,separation analysis and structural characterization.This article summarized domestic and foreign researches on extraction,purification,separation and analysis,and structural characterization of traditional Chinese medicine on oligosaccharides in recent years,and in order to provide a reference for modern drugs research,clinical applications of oligosaccharides and the creation of functional products.
Advances on naturally occurring amino acids with pesticidal activities
WU Zhao-yuan, KE Shao-yong, FANG Wei, WANG Kai-mei
2022, 34(5):  899-907.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.5.019
Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (982KB) ( 3 )  
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Natural products have been playing important roles in research and development of new pesticides,and amino acids are a type of important natural active substances.Naturally occurring amino acids exist widely in plants and microorganisms,and some of them exhibit significant Pesticidal activities,including herbicidal,plant growth regulating,antibacterial,fungicidal,insecticidal,acaricidal and nematocidal activities.In this review,it will summarize systematically the structural diversity and pesticidal activities of naturally occurring amino acids,based on the publications in domestic and foreign journals and databases in the recent thirty years.It might offer references for the research and development of new pesticides.