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28 August 2022, Volume 34 Issue 8
Effects of Chinese herbal extracts on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus
YUAN Lian, ZHANG Jiao, LIU Lan-mei, CHEN Dan, JIANG Hong-yu, YIN Ye-shi, LI Bai-yuan
2022, 34(8):  1273-1280.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.001
Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 5 )  
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The biofilm formation is an important cause of bacterial antibiotic resistance and persistence infection,which brings great harm to the medical and food safety.At present,the use of Chinese herbal medicine has played an positive role in prevention and treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections.In this study,16 of herbs,including Rhei Radix et Rhizoma,at al. were selected,and the bacteriostatic effects of ethanol and water extracts on Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 were analyzed by 96-well bacterial culture method.The crystal violet assay was used to determine the biofilm formation of S. aureus NCTC 8325 under sub-inhibitory concentration of extracts.The results showed that,with the exception of Caulis Alsophilae having no inhibitory effects on the S. aureus NCTC 8325,15 extracts had antibacterial activity.Moreover,it was observed that the extracts of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma,Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix,Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix,Ligustri Lucidi Fructus,Prunellae Spica,Senecionis Scandentis Hebra,Magnoliae Flos,Coptidis Rhizoma,Amomi Fructus,Caulis Alsophilae,Artemisiae Scopariae Herba and Menthae Haplocalycis Herba could significantly inhibit the biofilm formation of S. aureus NCTC 8325.The ethanol extracts of Siegesbeckiae Herba,Pteridis Multifidae Herba,Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma,Schizonepetae Herba had inhibitory effects on the biofilm formation of S. aureus NCTC 8325,but the water extracts of Siegesbeckiae Herba,Pteridis Multifidae Herba,Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma,Schizonepetae Herba enhanced the biofilm formation.These results indicate that the bioactive compounds in the two extracts may differ due to the use of different extraction solvents.Thus,our findings indicate that some Traditional Chinese medicine can be potential adjunctive agents for the prevention and treatment of S. aureus infection.
Study on chemical components from Hedyotis diffusa Willd and their anti-tumour activity
WANG Ting, LIANG Yan-ni, HOU Bao-long, WU Ke-nan, WU Dong-zhi, PEI Gang, WANG Zheng
2022, 34(8):  1281-1288.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.002
Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (843KB) ( 2 )  
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The chemical constituents were separated from Hedyotis diffusa Willd by using silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,preparative liquid chromatography and other chromatographic separation methods.The obtained compounds were identified by NMR and MS.Thirteen compounds isolated from H. diffusa include pentadecanoic acid heptadecyl ester (1),stigmasterol (2),2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone (3),7-hydroxytectoquinone (4),ursolic acid (5),oleanolic acid (6),2-butyl-1-hydroxyanthra-9,10-quinone (7),betulinic acid (8),rutin (9),quercetin (10), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (11), trans-p-methoxycinnamic acid (12) and kaempferol (13).Compounds 1,4 and 7 were isolated from H. diffusa for the first time.CCK-8 was used to detect the inhibitory effects of different polar sites and compounds on the proliferation  of A549 cells in vitro.The chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract from H. diffusa both inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells,also showed significant dose-effect relationship.When the concentrations of extract was from 25 μmol/L to 400 μmol/L,the inhibition rate of cell proliferation for the chloroform and ethyl acetate sites increased from 12.9%,43.32% to 80.49%,63.74%,respectively.Ursolic acid,oleanolic acid and betulinic acid can significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells with IC50 values of 12.80,2.81 and 8.38 μmol/L,respectively.
Study on the feature markers of Chrysanthemi Flos based on HPLC fingerprint combined with chemometrics
ZHANG Wei, WU Rui, CHANG Xiang-wei, ZHAO Hong-su, ZHANG Jiu-ba, JIN Chuan-shan, WU De-ling, LU Tu-lin
2022, 34(8):  1289-1300.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.003
Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (2550KB) ( 0 )  
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In this study,HPLC was used to establish the characteristic chromatograms of different medicinal Chrysanthemi Flos species.The similarity evaluation of characteristic chromatograms,cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were combined,which was used to study the common components and differential components of 5 different Chrysanthemi Flos cultivars.21,20,25,22 and 22 characteristic peaks were determined from the characteristic chromatograms of Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat).Tzvel.‘Boju’ cv.nov.(BJ),C. morifolium (Ramat).Tzvel.‘Chuju’ cv.nov.(CJ),C. morifolium (Ramat).Tzvel.‘Gongju’ cv.nov.(GJ),C. morifolium (Ramat).Tzvel.‘Hangju’ cv.nov.(HAJ) and C. morifolium (Ramat).Tzvel.‘Huaiju’ cv.nov.(HUJ) respectively,17 characteristic peaks were determined from the characteristic chromatogram of Chrysanthemi Flos,and 12 chemical components were identified.The similarity of the five species was above 0.971,but the interspecific similarity was low.CA,PCA and OPLS-DA could accurately classify the five Chrysanthemi Flos species into five categories.Combined with OPLS-DA,Isochlorogenic acid B,3,5-O-diccoffeyl quinic acid,diosmetin,cryptochlorogenic acid,chlorogenic acid,neochlorogenic acid,luteolin,geranitin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and other 10 common components in Chrysanthemi Flos may be the feature markers of Chrysanthemi Flos.Apigenin,apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside,luteolin-7-O-glucoside and isochlorogenic acid C may be the feature markers that lead to the difference of Chrysanthemi Flos cultivars.HPLC characteristic chromatograms of Chrysanthemi Flos combined with chemometrics were used to screen out the common substance basis of medicinal Chrysanthemi Flos as feature markers and feature markers of significant differences among different varieties of Chrysanthemi Flos,which could provide scientific basis for overall quality evaluation,variety identification and single variety characteristic evaluation of Chrysanthemi Flos.
Study on the changes of components in Euodiae Fructus and prepared Euodiae Fructus by UPLC fingerprint combined with multivariate statistical analysis
YANG Wen-hui, LYU Wei-sheng, SUN Dong-mei, LUO Wen-hui, YANG Jie, HE Min-you, PAN Li-ye, LI Zhen-yu
2022, 34(8):  1301-1310.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.004
Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (1848KB) ( 0 )  
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To establish the fingerprints of Euodiae Fructus and prepared Euodiae Fructus,the changes of chemical components in Euodiae Fructus and its preparation were analyzed by multivariate statistics. Using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) technology. Chromatographic column was YMC Triart C18 (100 mm×2.1 mm,1.9 μm).The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid water (gradient elution),the flow rate was 0.30 mL/min,the column temperature was 30 ℃,the detection wavelength was 254 nm,the injection volume was 1 μL.The UPLC fingerprints of Euodiae Fructus and its preparation were established,and the similarity calculation and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to analyze and evaluate the fingerprints,the variable importance projection (VIP) value greater than 1 was used as the criterion to screen the differential components before and after processing. Taking the average peak area as the variable,the average peak area of the chromatographic peaks of different components of Euodiae Fructus and prepared Euodiae Fructus was tested by paired t-test. A total of 27 common fingerprint peaks were identified in the fingerprint of Euodiae Fructus,Eight chemical components were identified as neocrogenic acid,chlorogenic acid,cryptochlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,hyperin,dehydroevotaine,rutaecarine and rutaecarine. Glycyrrhizic acid chromatographic peak was added to the fingerprint of processed Euodiae Fructus. The results of similarity degree showed that the similarity degree of Jiangxi production area was low. Hunan production area was lower. Guangxi production area was relatively high. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) found six markers of difference,and the order of significance of difference was glycyrrhizic acid > evocorine > peak 3> peak 1> chlorogenic acid > peak 2. Except that glycyrrhizic acid is a new component,the contents of the other five chemical components of Euodiae Fructus after processing are reduced to a certain extent. After the processing of Euodiae Fructus,the average peak area of peak 21 (evodiamine) decreased significantly (P<0.05),peak 28 (glycyrrhizic acid) was a new component,and the average peak areas of the other five differential chemical components decreased in varying degrees,but there was no significant statistical significance. This analysis method has strong specificity and good repeatability. It preliminarily discusses the correlation between the pharmacological effects and chemical components of Euodiae Fructus and prepared Euodiae Fructus,and explains the relationship between the changes of pharmacological effects and chemical components before and after Euodiae Fructus processing to a certain extent,which can provide data reference for the quality and processing research of Euodiae Fructus and prepared Euodiae Fructus.
Study on the mechanism of curcumin in protecting osteoblast function through anti-oxidative stress
ZHAO Rong-shan, LIANG Wei-jian, DENG Wei-cong, LIN Zheng-jiang, ZENG Xin-ming, HONG Yong-chang
2022, 34(8):  1311-1318.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.005
Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (1265KB) ( 1 )  
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Oxidative stress-induced osteoblast dysfunction is the key pathogenic factor of osteoporosis.In order to explore the protective effect of curcumin on the function of osteoblasts under oxidative stress and its mechanism,rat osteoblasts cultured in vitrowere pretreated with 1.25,2.5,5 and 10 μmol/L curcumin,and then treated with 50 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide to eatablish an oxidative injury model.The results of cell proliferation showed that hydrogen peroxide treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of osteoblasts,and curcumin at various concentrations could significantly enhance the activity of osteoblasts and promote cell proliferation (P  < 0.05).The measurement of oxidative stress indicators showed that hydrogen peroxide treatment significantly down-regulated the activities of total antioxidant capacity,superoxide dismutase,and catalase of osteoblasts,and increased the content of malondialdehyde.Pretreatment with curcumin at various concentrations significantly improved excessive oxidation (P  < 0.05).Furthermore,detection of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation ability showed that pretreatment with 1.25,2.5 and 5 μmol/L curcumin can significantly up-regulated the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts under oxidative stress (P  < 0.05),and promoted the formation of mineralized calcium nodules,while 10 μmol/L curcumin did not show a significant effect (P  > 0.05).Overall,2.5 μmol/L curcumin exhibited the best protective effect.Western blotting results showed that curcumin's antioxidant protective effect on osteoblasts may be associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK activation and the promotion of Wnt signaling pathway expression.These findings indicate that curcumin protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress injury and promotes their proliferation and differentiation by scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhancing the activity of the endogenous antioxidant system in vitro.
Separation,content determination and in vitro activities of tellimagrandin I from Rosa rugosa
SAREN Gao-wa, SU Long-ga, CAIREN La-mao, QIHE Ri-ma
2022, 34(8):  1319-1324.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.006
Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (753KB) ( 0 )  
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A compound tellimagrandin I with high purity (95.48%) was isolated and prepared from Aershan Rosa rugosa extract using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography,and its chemical structure was identified;the content of the tellimagrandin I in  R. rugosa which was determined by HPLC and its contents in 11 kinds of R. rugosa was from 0.7% to 7.4%.In the in vitro activities test,tellimagrandin I showed stronger inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and the IC50 values was 10.0 μg/mL.The extracts of R. rugosa from different areas also showed better inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase.Also,tellimagrandin I showed stronger DPPH free radical scavenging activity,and the IC50 values was 8.1 μg/mL.The extracts of R. rugosa from different areas all showed DPPH free radical scavenging activities.With the contents of the tellimagrandin I in extracts of R. rugosa from different areas,the corresponding α-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH free radical scavenging activities were tending to increase,but there was no significant correlation.This study provided a reference for clarifying the active ingredients of R. rugosa extract for lowering postprandial blood sugar,and provided a basis for the development and utilization of R. rugosa.
Study on chemical constituents from chloroform and n-butanol fractions of Tinosporae sinenisis (Lour.) Merr.
GAO Yan-yan, GUO Feng-xia, GUO Shao-bo, LIANG Yan, ZHANG Wei, LIU Bin
2022, 34(8):  1325-1331.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.007
Abstract ( 27 )   PDF (641KB) ( 1 )  
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Study on the chemical constituents from Tinosporae sinenisis (Lour.) Merr. The shattered stem of T. sinenisis was extracted with 70% ethanol under reflux. The crude extract was extracted with chloroform,ethyl acetate and n-butanol,successively. Thirteen compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 and macroporous resin from chloroform and n-butanol fractions of T. sinenisis. Their structures were elucidated via the interpretation of nuclear magnetic spectrometry,mass spectrometry and other spectral analyses. Thirteen compounds were identified as 2-(2′-hydroxytetracosanoylamino) octadecane-1,3,4-triol (1),1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (2),soyacerebrosides Ⅰ and Ⅱ (3),tinocordiside (4), trans-syringin (5),3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-β-D-glucoside (6),tinosinen (7),5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanacrylic acid (8),tinosineside A (9),tinosposide A (10),isolariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11),secoisolariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12) and L-pyroglutamic acid (13). Compounds 1-4 were isoalted from chloroform fraction,and compounds 5-13 were isolated from n-butanol fraction. Compound 8 is the first report from natural sources,compounds 1,2,3,6,11 are newly isolated from the family Menispermaceae,compound 13 is newly isolated from T. sinenisis. In addition,all the 13 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.
Study on the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. from Aspongopus chinensis and their antimicrobial activity
XU Xiao-tian, JI Ling-bo, DUAN Xiao-qun, WANG Yu-hui
2022, 34(8):  1332-1337.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.008
Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (844KB) ( 0 )  
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The metabolites of an endophytic Aspergillus sp. from the intestine of Aspongopus chinensis were studied in tihis paper.Six compounds were isolated from rice solid fermentation extract by silica gel column chromatography,MCI column chromatography,gel column chromatography and semi preparative liquid method.The structures of the six compounds were analyzed by NMR and mass spectrometry,including a new compound flavion (1) and five known compounds citreovirenone (2),kojic acid (3),methyl chloroacetate (4),aspulvinone P (5) and aspulvinone Q (6).Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from Aspergillus for the first time.Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited weak antimicrobial effects with MIC values ranging from 35.5 to 67.5 μg/mL.
Study on the chemical constituents and anticancer effects of Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Van Tiegh.
PAN Li-wei, LUO Ze-ping, WEI Zheng, WANG Yan-ping, PAN Cai-yan, WANG Ai-juan
2022, 34(8):  1338-1344.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.009
Abstract ( 19 )   PDF (733KB) ( 1 )  
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To study the chemical constituents and antitumor activities in the stems and leaves of Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.)Van Tiegh.Silica gel,macroporous resin,polyamide,MCI Gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography were used to separate and purify ethanol extract from M. cochinchinensis,and modern spectroscopic techniques were used to identify 14 compounds,namely β-amyrin acetate (1),β-amyrin (2),lupeol (3),cycloeucalenol (4),campesterol (5),β-sitosterol (6),quercetin (7),quercitrin (8),gallic acid (9),rutin (10),ellagic acid (11),brevifolin (12),ellagic acid-4′-O-β-D-xylopyranoside-3,3′-dimethylether(13) and ellagic acid-4′-O-β-D-xylopyranoside-3,3′-dimethylether(14).All 14 compounds were isolated from  M. cochinchinensis for the first time.Taking A549 lung cancer cells as the research object,the inhibitory effect of compounds 1-14 on A549 lung cancer cells was determined by CCK-8 cell proliferation test kit.The effects of compound 14 on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis level change of A549 lung cancer cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.It was found that all compounds except compounds 1,2 and 4 had different inhibitory effects on A549 cells (IC50=9.3-42.2 μg/mL),and compound 14 had the strongest effect,and its cell cycle was blocked in G1 phase,and the apoptosis rate increased significantly.Compound 3 and compounds 5-14 may be the main antitumor active components of  M. cochinchinensis.Compound 14 can inhibit the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells,and its mechanism may be to induce apoptosis by blocking cell cycle.
Chemical constituents from the Stelleropsis tianschanica
HE Xiao-yan, LI Xiao-wan, QIU Yuan-jing, ZHANG Jing, SHI Lei-ling
2022, 34(8):  1345-1351.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.010
Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (598KB) ( 0 )  
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The chemical constituents of Stelleropsis tianschanica were separated and purified by column chromatography,and the structures were identified by spectra analysis combined with physical and chemical properties.Finally,a total of 15 compounds were isolated from 95% methanol extract of  S. tianschanica,including three diterpenoids compounds,four phenylpropanoids compounds,four phenolic acids compounds,and the other four compounds.The structures were identified as excoecariatoxin (1),12-hydroxydaphnetoxin (2),2,5-dimethoxybenzoquinone (3),rutamontine (4),scorpinone (5),dihydrosyringenin (6),N-(2-phenylethyl)acetamide (7),pinoresinol (8),matairesinol (9),vesiculosin (10),threo-8S-7-methoxysyringylglycerol (11),cyclo(D)-pro-(D)-leu (12),threo-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-ethoxypropane-1,2-diol (13),(-)-syringaresinol (14),threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-1,3-propanediol (15).Compounds 1-7,12-15 are isolated from the Stelleropsis genus for the first time.In addition,cytotoxic effects of compounds 1-15 were screened on HGC-27 gastric cancer cell lines.The results showed that compounds 1,2,3 and 10 were in the range of 50 μmol/L had strong inhibitory activity,and the inhibition rates were 92.0%,86.8%,87.28% and 76.34%,respectively,and their IC50 values were 14.06,15.23,17.28,27.1 μmol/L.
Study on the transformation rule of 6-gingerol and its antioxidant activity during the processing of ginger
WANG Xue-qin, BU Chao, GU Cong-wen, HUANG Bao-sheng, HAN Yan-quan, HONG Yan, WU De-ling
2022, 34(8):  1352-1360.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.011
Abstract ( 29 )   PDF (1701KB) ( 1 )  
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The transformation rule of 6-gingerol and the effect of 6-gingerol transformation on antioxidant activity in vitro were studied by sand frying and simulated processing combined with antioxidant test in vitro.The UPLC was used to determine the contents of 6-gingerol,6-shogaol and zingerone in dried ginger and different sand frying processes;The contents of 6-gingerol and its transformation products 6-shogaol and zingerone were investigated under different temperature and time conditions by simulating processing 6-gingerol monomer with oil bath heating;In vitro antioxidant activities of processed ginger samples and 6-gingerol simulated processed products were determined by different sand frying processes,and the correlation between 6-gingerol content and antioxidant activities was analyzed by SPSS 23.0.The results showed that with the prolongation of sand frying time and the increase of temperature,the content of 6-gingerol in ginger samples decreased gradually,and the content of 6-shogaol and zingerone increased gradually.The simulated processing confirmed that 6-gingerol could be partially converted into 6-shogaol and zingerone after oil bath heating.There was a significant positive correlation between 6-gingerol content and antioxidant activity in simulated processed samples.The experimental results provided a reference for revealing the processing mechanism and optimization of processing technology of ginger.
Comprehensive quality evaluation of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen based on multi-index components combined with EW-TOPSIS method
MA Ling-zhen, JI Dong-han, JU Kang, XUE Tian-le, WEN Yong
2022, 34(8):  1361-1373.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.012
Abstract ( 19 )   PDF (1372KB) ( 0 )  
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Comprehensive quality evaluation of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen based on HPLC-QAMS multi-index components quantitative determination combined with chemometrics and entropy weight-technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution(EW-TOPSIS) method,which provided reference for scientific evaluation of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen quality and determination of suitability for producing area.A total of 18 samples from five provinces were collected.Using verbascoside as an internal standard,determination of aucubin,geniposidic acid,10-hydroxy majoroside,plantamajoside, verbascoside,isoacteoside,quercetin,kaempferol,luteolin and apigenin in salt-processed Plantaginis Semen by HPLC-QAMS.Chemometrics method were used to comprehensively analyze the content determination results,and the main potential markers affecting the quality of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen were excavated.The quality of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen from different origins was evaluated.The ten components showed good linear relationships within their respective ranges,and accuracy was good.There was no significant difference in the determination results of QAMS method and external standard method (ESM) (P>0.05).The chemometrics method showed that 18 batches of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen could be clustered into three categories,showing certain regional differences.verbascoside,geniposidic acid,apigenin and plantamajoside were the main potential markers affecting the quality of chaperone fruit,Results of entropy weight TOPSIS method showed that the quality of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen in Jiangxi the best in all provinces,followed by Henan,Anhui,Shandong and Guangxi.The established HPLC-QAMS method is convenient and accurate,and combined with chemometrics and EW-TOPSIS method can be used for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of salt-processed Plantaginis Semen.
Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on heavy metals in rhizosphere soil,fibrous roots and rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis
LANG Jia-qi, ZHAO Shun-xin, WANG Dan, LI Jin-jin, LI Hai-ling, ZHOU Nong, ZHAO Jing-jing, Li Ya-nan
2022, 34(8):  1374-1384.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.013
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The paper mainly studies the changes of 5 heavy metal residues in the rhizosphere soil,fibrous roots and rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) mixed inoculants,which provides a reference for the research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.Effects of inoculating different AMF mixed inoculants in sterilized soil on the residues of 5 heavy metals (Pb,Cu,As,Hg and Cr) in the rhizosphere soil,fibrous roots and rhizomes (new rhizomes and old rhizomes) of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were studied through a pot inoculation experiments.The results showed that,compared with control,exogenous inoculation of different AMF mixed inoculants promoted the increase of the above five heavy metal residues in fibrous roots,and significantly reduced the residues of the above five heavy metals in the rhizosphere soil and rhizomes (new rhizomes and old rhizomes) of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Among them,S6 mixed inoculants (Claroideoglomus claroideum,Septoglomus deserticola,Scutellospora pellucida,Scutellospora calospora, Gigaspora gigantea and Gigaspora margarita) had the best regulation effect on the residues of heavy metals in the rhizosphere soil and rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.The heavy metal residues in the rhizosphere soil were reduced by 11.32%,16.73%,54.53%,52.33% and 30.44%.The heavy metal residues in new rhizomes were reduced by 23.43%,51.65%,15.04%,29.74% and 29.66%.The heavy metal residues in old rhizomes were declined by 40.13%,39.14%,30.99%,44.86% and 37.91%.It can be seen that exogenous inoculation of AMF mixed inoculants can significantly reduce the enrichment ability in rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis to 5 kinds of heavy metal elements.Among them,S6 mixed inoculants can be used as a reference for reducing the accumulation of heavy metals during field cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.
Comparative study on secondary metabolites of Eucommia ulmoides leaves between arboreal forest and leaf forest based on UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
SHEN Meng-yuan, WU Bei, DUAN Han-qi, YANG Fang-qing, WANG Fu, CHEN Hong-ping, LIU You-ping
2022, 34(8):  1385-1399.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.014
Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (2486KB) ( 0 )  
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In this study,UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS was used to analyze the secondary metabolites of E. ulmoides leaves between arboreal forest and leaf forest.The differences of them were analyzed and compared.Accurate qualitative analysis was carried out by combining multi-level ion fragment information with mzCloud network database,high resolution mass spectrometry database of traditional Chinese medicine,comparison of reference materials and literature database.A total of 62 species of secondary metabolites were identified,including 9 flavonoids,9 phenylpropanoids,2 iridoids,21 organic acids,5 coumarins and 16 other components,among which coumarins were first discovered in E. ulmoides leaves.Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA)were used to process the sample data.The results showed that E. ulmoides leaves of arboreal forest could be distinguished from E. ulmoides leaves of leaf.According to VIP value >1,10 components with different relative contents were screened from E. ulmoides leaves.The components with significant differences (P<0.05) were D-(-)-quinic acid,citric acid,4-methylumbellione,4,5-dicaffeylquinic acid,3′,4′ -dihydroxyphenylacetone by independent sample t-test.This method can accurately and efficiently determine the chemical constituents in eucommia ulmoides leaves and analyze the changes of their relative content,which provides a theoretical basis for quality evaluation of eucommia ulmoides leaves.
Exploration of the potential mechanism of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix on treating atherosclerosis based on network pharmacology,molecular docking and experimental verification in vitro
HE Lin, PENG Wei, ZHANG Xue-jian, TAO Fei-yan, WU Chun-jie
2022, 34(8):  1400-1414.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.015
Abstract ( 33 )   PDF (3315KB) ( 2 )  
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This study aims to explore the potential action mechanism of freeze-drying Panacis Quinquefolii Radix (FDPQ) on atherosclerosis (AS) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.Firstly,the saponins of FDPQ were characterized by UPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis.Then,the related targets of FDPQ and AS were predicted using the SwissTargetPrediction database and GeneCards database,respectively.The overlapping targets of FDPQ and AS were obtained and subjected to GO and KEGG analysis.Further,the PPI and drug-compounds-targets-disease-pathways networks were constructed by Cytoscape software.Discovery studio software was employed to predict the docking affinity between the potential targets for AS treatments and active components from FDPQ.Finally,PC12 cells were induced by H2O2 to establish an oxidative damage cell model and treated with FDPQ.CCK-8 method,mitochondrial membrane potential detection,antioxidant enzyme activity determination,and qRT-PCR detection of related gene mRNA expression were used to preclinically verify the prediction results of network pharmacology.According to the results of UPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis,28 ginsenosides of FDPQ were identified,such as ginsenosides Rg4 and pseudo-ginsenoside F11.A total of 21 core targets including PIK3CA and VEGFA were obtained through PPI network analysis.The most significantly enriched pathway of GO and KEGG involved transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway,focal adhesion,protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity,PI3K-Akt signaling pathway,Lipid and atherosclerosis,VEGF signaling pathway,et al.The results of molecular docking show that the main active components have a good binding affinity with the key targets.For example,pseudo-ginsenoside F11 had a high affinity with the target PIK3CA.Cell experiments showed that compared with blank group,cell viability of model group decreased (P< 0.05),mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and MDA level increased (P< 0.05),SOD and CAT activities decreased (P< 0.05),PI3K/Akt expression was down-regulated;Compared with model group,FDPQ group increased cell viability (P< 0.05),mitochondrial membrane potential increased and MDA level decreased (P< 0.05),SOD and CAT activities increased (P< 0.05),PI3K/Akt expression was up-regulated.This network pharmacology-based research indicates that FDPQ’s effect on AS is characterized by multi-ingredients,multi-targets,and multi-pathways,laying a preliminary foundation for further study of its material basis and mechanism of action.
Bioinformatics study on clinical prognosis of liver cancer and targeted therapy of traditional Chinese medicine based on screening of core pathogenic genes
WU Jia, WU Man-ting, LONG Rong, QIU Jing-yue, YU Chang, XIONG Meng, ZENG Mei-yan, SONG Hou-pan
2022, 34(8):  1415-1429.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.016
Abstract ( 21 )   PDF (4029KB) ( 1 )  
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The key pathogenic genes of liver cancer were screened by bioinformatics methods to explore their expression level,pathogenesis,immune infiltration,mutation and prognosis,and to further explore the potential traditional Chinese medicine for targeted treatment of liver cancer.The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in normal and hepatoma tissues were analyzed by data set GSE19665;Go and KEGG analysis were performed on DEGs to construct the interaction network of DEGs protein and screen the key genes of liver cancer;Mutation,immune infiltration,expression and prognosis of key genes were analyzed;Excavate potential traditional Chinese medicine and natural active ingredients for the treatment of liver cancer.159 significant DEGs were screened,which were mainly involved in immune and inflammatory responses and involved in p53,mTOR and other signal pathways;Ten key genes were screened out.The expression of four genes such as CDC20 in HCC was significantly increased,and the overall survival time of patients in the high expression group was significantly reduced;The overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with key gene mutations were significantly reduced;The expression of key genes was closely related to the infiltration of immune cells;36 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine and 105 kinds of active ingredients were screened by the key gene target.In this study,the key pathogenic genes of liver cancer were identified,and their abnormal expression was closely related to the poor prognosis and immune cell infiltration of liver cancer.The potential traditional Chinese medicine and its active ingredients for the treatment of liver cancer were excavated.The research results can provide a scientific basis for the diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of liver cancer.
Research progress on clinical application and therapeutic mechanism of Bufonis Venenum for anti-tumor
LIU Juan, TONG Ming-hui, GUO Ying-qiu, LI Juan
2022, 34(8):  1430-1438.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.017
Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (861KB) ( 1 )  
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Bufonis Venenum,as a precious traditional Chinese medicinal material,has a long medicinal history.With the continuous research,its unique drug advantages in anti-tumor have been found.Recently,numerous reports indicate that Bufonis Venenum and its preparations show good curative effect in the clinical treatment of tumors.It not only inhibits growth of tumors but also effectively improve the immunity of body.Meanwhile,Bufonis Venenum and its constituents have been considered very powerful in anti-tumors by a large number of in vivo and in vitro experimentations.This paper reviewed about the anti-tumor clinical application and mechanisms including inhibiting the proliferation,migration,invasion,inducing apoptosis,autophagy of tumor cells,as well as reversing multi-drug resistance of Bufonis Venenum and its preparations in the latest five years,so as to provide guidance for the further study of the anti-tumor mechanisms and clinical rational use of Bufonis Venenum.
Research advance in phthalides and their biological activities
YANG Ya-lin, FENG Yang, CHEN Hao, XU Min
2022, 34(8):  1439-1453.  doi:10.16333/j.1001-6880.2022.8.018
Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (2099KB) ( 0 )  
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Phthalides,a class of ester derivatives bearing a benzene ring fused a five-membered lactone ring,belong to o-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid lactone.They were mainly found in plants of Umbelliferae family,and a small amount of them distributed in plants of Pittosporaceae,Fumariaceae,Asteraceae and Piperaceae families.The phthalides were also isolated from bacteria and fungi.The structures of phthalide are various diversity including simple phthalide,phthalide polymer and phthalide alkaloid hybrid.These compounds showed a variety of biological activities,such as anticancer,antibacterial,insecticidal and sedative,which had been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Herein,the structure and biological activity of phthalides were summarized from 2015 to 2021,which will provide some ideas to the development and utilization of phthalides.
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